EFECTO PLACEBO Y ESTIMULACIÓN SONORA BINAURAL DE ONDAS BETA Y THETA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DE UNA TAREA DE MEMORIA DE TRABAJO (Placebo Effect and Binaural Sound Stimulation of Beta Wave and Theta Wave in a Working Memory Task Performance)

Autores/as

Resumen

En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental de medidas repetidas con grupos caso y control, cuyo objetivo fue medir el efecto de los sonidos binaurales de onda beta y theta, y de la información placebo relacionada a ellos, sobre el rendimiento de una tarea de memoria de trabajo computarizada, versión libre del Automated Operation Span Task -AOSPAN- de Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock y Engle (2005). Dicha tarea se repitió en dos sesiones separadas por un lapso mínimo de dos semanas, una de las cuales se resolvía mientras se escuchaba una estimulación sonora binaural de onda beta o theta que, dependiendo del grupo, se acompañaba o no de información placebo. Se evaluaron 98 personas con distinto nivel de escolaridad divididas en seis grupos experimentales y uno de control. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tiempo de presentación de la tarea experimental asociada a información placebo, mostrando una mejoría en la segunda aplicación de la tarea. Debido a ambigüedades en los resultados, a pesar de encontrar diferencias significativas asociadas a la estimulación binaural de onda beta, no pudieron establecerse relaciones concretas entre la mejoría en el recuerdo de conjuntos de hasta cuatro elementos con la presencia de dicha variable. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables de recuerdo global, lo cual puede explicarse por el tipo de tarea de memoria utilizado.

 

Palabras Clave: Memoria de trabajo, Sonidos binaurales, AOSPAN, Evaluación computarizada, Psychopy, Procesamiento de la información, recuerdo inmediato, Psicología Experimental, Estimulación sonora, Memoria a corto plazo, Pruebas de interferencia.

 

Abstract

In this work, a quasi-experimental study of repeated measures with case and control groups was carried out, whose objective was to measure the effect of binaural sounds of beta and theta waves, and the placebo information related to them, on the performance of a computerized working memory task, Automated Operation Span Task -AOSPAN- free version of Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock and Engle (2005). This task was repeated in two sessions separated by an interval of two weeks, one of which was resolved while listening to a binaural sound stimulation of beta wave or theta that, depending on the group, was supported or not by placebo information. 98 people with different levels of schooling were tested twice, divided into six experimental groups and one control group. Significant differences were found related to time duration in performing the experimental task associated with placebo information; it was showed an improvement the second time the task was administered. Due to ambiguities in the results, despite finding significant differences associated with binaural stimulation of beta wave, it was not possible to establish concrete relations between the improvement in the memory of sets up four elements with the presence of this variable. No significant differences were found in the global recall variables, which can be explained by the type of memory task performed.

 

Keywords: Working Memory, Binaural Sounds, AOSPAN, Computerized Assessment, Psychopy, Information Processing, Immediate Memory, Psychology, Experimental Psychology, Sound Stimulation, Short-Term Memory, Interference Tests.

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Biografía del autor/a

Sebastian Alonso Rojas-Álvarez, UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA

Psicólogo. Psicoeducador en Centro Transitorio de Menores infractores y en la Secretaría de Educación del municipio de Santa Rosa de Osos (Antioquia, Colombia).

Ancizar Valencia, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA

Ingeniero de Sistemas y Computación. Estudiante de Maestría en Psicología de la Universidad de Antioquia. Investigador del Grupo de Investigación y Desarrollo en Inteligencia Artificial – GIDIA-, Universidad de Antioquia.

Mauricio Alberto Barrera-Valencia, UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA HRADEC KRALOVÉ UNIVERSITY

Doctor en Psicología con Orientación en Neurociencias Cognitivas. Magister en Neuropsicología. Psicólogo.

Investigador Asociado del Grupo de investigación Psicología Cognitiva, Jefe de Movilidad y Relaciones Internacionales, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad de Antioquia. Docente invitado de la Universidad Hradec Kralové, República Checa.

Citas

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2019-11-05

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