Clasificación de heridas cutáneas y técnicas terapéuticas para la reparación de la piel

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21615/cesenferm.7262

Palabras clave:

piel, heridas, biomaterial, técnicas terapéuticas, reparación de tejidos

Resumen

Las heridas de piel son un problema de salud pública mundial, las cuales cobran alrededor de trescientas mil vidas cada año y generan discapacidades a millones más. Más del 95% de estas lesiones ocurren en países en desarrollo, donde el acceso a los servicios de salud es complicado y los recursos son escasos. Variables como la profundidad, la causa, el nivel de infección y/o la cronicidad determinan el resultado de las heridas en la piel y si estas impedirán el proceso de curación natural del cuerpo. Para el tratamiento de heridas cutáneas profundas, crónicas y/o complicadas se han desarrollado diferentes tratamientos. Las técnicas tradicionales ampliamente utilizadas como la asepsia, el desbridamiento y la cirugía, tienen como objetivo prevenir daños mayores y ayudar a la cicatrización, pero tienen muchas desventajas, entre las que se encuentran resultados de baja eficiencia, altas tasas de tiempo de curación y costos elevados. Estrategias alternativas y novedosas como los apósitos bioactivos y la medicina regenerativa pretenden alcanzar una recuperación funcional y estética del tejido, minimizando el riesgo de rechazo presente en otras técnicas como colgajos e injertos de piel. La presente revisión muestra las principales características de la piel, una descripción general de los tipos de heridas más comunes y su incidencia, así como las estrategias de ingeniería tisular que se utilizan para la regeneración del tejido cutáneo.

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Biografía del autor/a

Sara María Galvis Escobar, Universidad CES

Researcher Biomedical Engineering Program, Engineering Faculty, Universidad CES.

Juan David Molina Sierra, Universidad CES

Researcher Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics Faculty, Universidad CES.

Juan Pablo Ruíz Soto, Universidad CES

Biomedical Engineering Student, Engineering Faculty, Universidad CES.

Maria Antonia Rego Londoño, Universidad CES

Biomedical Engineering Student, Engineering Faculty, Universidad CES.

Catalina Pineda Molina, Universidad CES

Head Biomedical Engineering Program, Engineering Faculty, Universidad CES. Adjunct Faculty, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh.

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2023-11-10

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1.
Galvis Escobar SM, Molina Sierra JD, Ruíz Soto JP, Rego Londoño MA, Pineda Molina C. Clasificación de heridas cutáneas y técnicas terapéuticas para la reparación de la piel. CES Enf [Internet]. 10 de noviembre de 2023 [citado 28 de febrero de 2024];4(2):26-41. Disponible en: https://revistas.ces.edu.co/index.php/enfermeria/article/view/7262

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