Espasticidad como signo positivo de daño de motoneurona superior y su importancia en rehabilitación

Paulina Sepúlveda, José Luis Bacco, Alejandro Cubillos, Arlette Doussoulin

Resumen


Introducción: la espasticidad, como signo clínico de daño de motoneurona superior, cobra gran importancia al momento de definir su impacto en el proceso rehabilitador. Los objetivos de esta revisión bibliográfica son: analizar la evolución de la espasticidad como concepto, describir los hallazgos actuales en relación con su fisiopatología y analizar su importancia en el proceso rehabilitador.

Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica durante el segundo semestre del 2017 en bases de datos Pubmed, Scielo, Cochrane y Google Académico, utilizando los términos MeSH: muscle spasticity, physiopathology y stroke. Los límites de búsqueda fueron: textos completos en idioma inglés y español, en humanos y publicados durante los últimos cinco años.

Resultados: la fisiopatología de la espasticidad no es causada por un solo mecanismo, sino más bien una intrincada cadena de alteraciones en diferentes redes nerviosas interdependientes. Existiendo dos mecanismos principales: la alteración del control espinal y suprasegmentario y los cambios en las propiedades del sistema músculo-esquelético.

Conclusión: la evidencia científica es amplia y aborda el concepto de espasticidad, sus implicancias fisiopatológicas y clínicas. Sin embargo, futuras investigaciones deberían orientar y apoyar las decisiones del equipo rehabilitador, en relación con el manejo clínico.


Palabras clave


Rehabilitación; Espasticidad muscular; Fisiopatología; Neurología; Enfermedad cerebro-vascular

Citas


Bibliografía

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