HABILIDADES GNÓSICO-PRÁXICAS RELACIONADAS CON DIFICULTADES DEL APRENDIZAJE DE LA LECTURA Y LA ESCRITURA EN INDIVIDUOS DE 9 A 12 AÑOS (Gnostic-praxic Skills Related to Disabilities in Learning to Read and Write in Individuals Aged 9 to 12 Years)

Autores/as

Resumen

Las dificultades del aprendizaje constituyen una de las principales causas de fracaso escolar; su aparición temprana puede evidenciarse en las habilidades gnósico-práxicas que soportan los procesos de lectura y escritura. Objetivo: describir las habilidades gnósicas y práxicas en niños escolares, de 9 a 12 años de edad, asociadas a la presencia o no de dificultades en la lectura y/o la escritura. Participantes: 53 niños de una institución pública del municipio de Sabaneta-Colombia, divididos en dos grupos, uno compuesto por 16 niños con dificultades en la lectura y/o escritura y, el otro, por 37 niños sin dificultades en estos procesos. Resultados: la comparación intergrupos evidenció diferencias estadísticas (valor p y tamaño del efecto) significativas en aspectos cruciales para el proceso de lectura y escritura: la formación de imágenes visoconstruccionales y la velocidad, la planeación y la coordinación motora, evaluadas a partir de las tareas gnósico-práxicas de Sucesión de números y letras (WISC-IV) y Tapping (BANETA). Adicionalmente, se hallaron diferencias estadísticas en las subpruebas de Esterognosia, y correlaciones significativas entre Tapping y la velocidad al escribir palabras (BANETA). Conclusión: las habilidades gnósico-práxicas no son plenamente los procesos predominantes en las diferencias intergrupos, si bien las habilidades motoras se vinculan con los procesos de aprendizaje y las dificultades que en ellos puedan presentarse, como lo sugieren las correlaciones dadas entre la subprueba de velocidad motora y el proceso de escritura. Adicionalmente, la velocidad de procesamiento y la memoria operativa se presentan como procesos transversales a las habilidades gnósico-práxicas y de lectura y escritura.

 

Palabras claves

Gnosias, Praxias, Dificultades del Aprendizaje, Lectoescritura, Neuropsicología, Trastornos del Aprendizaje.

 

Abstract

Learning disabilities constitute one of the main causes of school failure; their early manifestation may be evidenced in the gnostic-praxis skills that support  reading and writing processes. Objective: To describe the performance of gnosis – praxis skills in school children (aged from 9 to 12 years old), associated to the existence or not of reading and/or writing difficulties. Participants: 53 children of a public school in Sabaneta – Colombia, divided into two groups, one consisting of 16 children with difficulties in reading and/or writing and, the other, by 37 children without difficulties in these processes.  Results: the inter-group comparison showed significant statistical differences , in crucial aspects for  reading and writing process: the  visoconstructional image formation, speed, planning and motor coordination, obtained from the gnosis – praxis tasks of Letter-Number Sequencing (WISC-IV) and Tapping (BANETA). Additionally, statistical differences were found in the subtests of Stereognosis (BANETA) and significant correlations between Tapping and the speed rate in writing words. Conclusion: Gnosis – praxis skills are not the predominant processes in intergroup differences, even though motor skills are linked to learning process and the difficulties they may arise, as suggested by the correlations given between the motor speed subtest and the writing process. In addition, processing speed and operational memory are shown as crosscutting   processes in gnosis-praxis, reading and writing  skills.

 

Keywords: Gnosis, Praxis, Learning Disabilities, Reading-Writing Skills, Neuropsychology, Learning Disorders.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Johanna Valencia Echeverry, Grupo de Investigación en Psiquiatría GIPSI Universidad de Antioquia Universidad San Buenaventura

Estudiante de Maestría en Neuropsicología. Integrante del  Grupo de Investigación en Psiquiatría (GIPSI) de la Universidad de Antioquia.

Diana Catalina García Murcia, Universidad de Antioquia

Psicóloga.

John Daniel Londoño Martínez, Universidad de Antioquia

Psicólogo. Integrante del Grupo de investigación El Método Analítico y sus Aplicaciones en las Ciencias Sociales y Humanas de la Universidad de Antioquia.

Mauricio Alberto Barrera Valencia, Universidad de Antioquia Hradec Králové University, República Checa

PhD. en Neurociencia Cognitiva Aplicada. Docente Universidad de Antioquia; Hradec Králové University. Integrante del Grupo de Psicología Cognitiva de la Universidad de Antioquia.

Citas

Venhorst K, Zelle SG, Tromp N, Lauer JA. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers. Cost Eff Resour Alloc CE. 2014;12:13.

Bravo LE, García LS, Carrascal E, Rubiano J. Burden of breast cancer in Cali, Colombia: 1962-2012. Salud Pública México. octubre de 2014;56(5):448-56.

Justo N, Wilking N, Jönsson B, Luciani S, Cazap E. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America. The Oncologist. marzo de 2013;18(3):248-56.

Angarita FA, Acuña SA, Torregrosa L, Tawil M, Ruiz ÁJ. Initial presentation of patients with diagnosis of breast cancer at the Centro Javeriano de Oncología of Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Rev Colomb Cir. marzo de 2010;25(1):19-26.

Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, Chatenoud L, Negri E, Levi F, La Vecchia C. Trends in cancer mortality in the Americas, 1970-2000. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol ESMO. marzo de 2005;16(3):489-511.

International Agency for research cancer GLOBCAN 2012. Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012 [Internet]. Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. Disponible en: http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx

Couch FJ, Hart SN, Sharma P, Toland AE, Wang X, Miron P, et al. Inherited mutations in 17 breast cancer susceptibility genes among a large triple-negative breast cancer cohort unselected for family history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1 de febrero de 2015;33(4):304-11.

Eccles BK, Copson E, Maishman T, Abraham JE, Eccles DM. Understanding of BRCA VUS genetic results by breast cancer specialists. BMC Cancer [Internet]. 25 de noviembre de 2015 [citado 3 de marzo de 2017];15. Disponible en: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4660681/

Fasching PA, Ekici AB, Wachter DL, Hein A, Bayer CM, Häberle L, et al. Breast Cancer Risk - From Genetics to Molecular Understanding of Pathogenesis. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. diciembre de 2013;73(12):1228-35.

Honrado E, Benítez J, Palacios J. The molecular pathology of hereditary breast cancer: genetic testing and therapeutic implications. Mod Pathol Off J U S Can Acad Pathol Inc. octubre de 2005;18(10):1305-20.

Palacios J, Robles-Frías MJ, Castilla MA, López-García MA, Benítez J. The molecular pathology of hereditary breast cancer. Pathobiol J Immunopathol Mol Cell Biol. 2008;75(2):85-94.

Tihomirova L, Vaivade I, Fokina O, Peculis R, Mandrika I, Sinicka O, et al. BRCA1 gene-related hereditary susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in Latvia. Adv Med Sci. marzo de 2014;59(1):114-9.

Walsh T, Casadei S, Coats KH, Swisher E, Stray SM, Higgins J, et al. Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 22 de marzo de 2006;295(12):1379-88.

Advani P, Moreno-Aspitia A. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Dove Med Press. 2014;6:59-71.

Butt S, Borgquist S, Anagnostaki L, Landberg G, Manjer J. Breastfeeding in relation to risk of different breast cancer characteristics. BMC Res Notes. 7 de abril de 2014;7:216.

Dossus L, Benusiglio PR. Lobular breast cancer: incidence and genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Breast Cancer Res BCR. 13 de marzo de 2015;17:37.

Mungrue K, Ramdath J, Ali S, Cuffie W-A, Dodough N, Gangar M, et al. Challenges to the Control of Breast Cancer in A Small Developing Country. Breast Cancer Basic Clin Res. 16 de enero de 2014;8:7-13.

Munzone E. Highlights from the ninth European breast cancer conference, glasgow, 19-21 march 2014. Ecancermedicalscience. 2014;8:426.

Narod SA, Tung N, Lubinski J, Huzarski T, Robson M, Lynch HT, et al. A prior diagnosis of breast cancer is a risk factor for breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Curr Oncol Tor Ont. abril de 2014;21(2):64-8.

Trinh T, Eriksson M, Darabi H, Bonn SE, Brand JS, Cuzick J, et al. Background risk of breast cancer and the association between physical activity and mammographic density. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:50.

Daniel Hartl L. Principles of population genetics. 3.a ed. Canada: Sinauer associates; 1997. 540 p.

Nickels S, Truong T, Hein R, Stevens K, Buck K, Behrens S, et al. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(3):e1003284.

Paterson AD, Naimark DM, Huang J, Vachon C, Petronis A, King RA, et al. Genetic anticipation and breast cancer: a prospective follow-up study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. mayo de 1999;55(1):21-8.

Strachan T, Read AP, Strachan T. Human molecular genetics. 4th ed. New York: Garland Science/Taylor & Francis Group; 2011. 781 p.

Ashton-Prolla P, Vargas FR. Prevalence and impact of founder mutations in hereditary breast cancer in Latin America. Genet Mol Biol. marzo de 2014;37(1 Suppl):234-40.

Bąk A, Janiszewska H, Junkiert-Czarnecka A, Heise M, Pilarska-Deltow M, Laskowski R, et al. A risk of breast cancer in women - carriers of constitutional CHEK2 gene mutations, originating from the North - Central Poland. Hered Cancer Clin Pract. 8 de abril de 2014;12(1):10.

Hajiloo M, Damavandi B, HooshSadat M, Sangi F, Mackey JR, Cass CE, et al. Breast cancer prediction using genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14(13):S3.

Khanna KK, Jackson SP. DNA double-strand breaks: signaling, repair and the cancer connection. Nat Genet. marzo de 2001;27(3):247-54.

Shiovitz S, Korde LA. Genetics of breast cancer: a topic in evolution. Ann Oncol. julio de 2015;26(7):1291-9.

Ferla R, Calò V, Cascio S, Rinaldi G, Badalamenti G, Carreca I, et al. Founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol. junio de 2007;18 Suppl 6:vi93-98.

Hedrick PW. Genetics of Populations. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2011. 689 p.

Fackenthal JD, Olopade OI. Breast cancer risk associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in diverse populations. Nat Rev Cancer. diciembre de 2007;7(12):937-48.

Carvajal-Carmona LG, Ophoff R, Service S, Hartiala J, Molina J, Leon P, et al. Genetic demography of Antioquia (Colombia) and the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Hum Genet. mayo de 2003;112(5-6):534-41.

Carvajal-Carmona LG, Soto ID, Pineda N, Ortíz-Barrientos D, Duque C, Ospina-Duque J, et al. Strong Amerind/White Sex Bias and a Possible Sephardic Contribution among the Founders of a Population in Northwest Colombia. Am J Hum Genet. noviembre de 2000;67(5):1287-95.

Nikali K, Vanegas JJ, Burley M-W, Martinez J, Lopez LM, Bedoya G, et al. Extensive founder effect for distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) with sensorineural deafness in an isolated South American population. Am J Med Genet A. 15 de octubre de 2008;146A(20):2709-12.

Arcos-Burgos M, Muenke M. Genetics of population isolates. Clin Genet. abril de 2002;61(4):233-47.

Anaya J-M, Gómez L, Castiblanco J. Is there a common genetic basis for autoimmune diseases? Clin Dev Immunol. diciembre de 2006;13(2-4):185-95.

WMA - The World Medical Association-WMA Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects [Internet]. [citado 23 de julio de 2017]. Disponible en: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/

Dennis RJ. Como estimar el tamano de la muestra en investigacion con humanos. Acta Méd Colomb. abril de 1989;14(2):92-9.

Advani P, Moreno-Aspitia A. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Dove Med Press. 2014;6:59-71.

Fasching PA, Ekici AB, Wachter DL, Hein A, Bayer CM, Häberle L, et al. Breast Cancer Risk - From Genetics to Molecular Understanding of Pathogenesis. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. diciembre de 2013;73(12):1228-35.

Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 11 de febrero de 1988;16(3):1215.

Rousset F. genepop’007: a complete re-implementation of the genepop software for Windows and Linux. Mol Ecol Resour. 1 de enero de 2008;8(1):103-6.

Levy PS, Stolte K. Statistical methods in public health and epidemiology: a look at the recent past and projections for the next decade. Stat Methods Med Res. febrero de 2000;9(1):41-55.

Murdoch D. [R] How to cite R-Project [Internet]. 2014 [citado 3 de marzo de 2017]. Disponible en: https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-help/2014-October/422975.html

Glebov OK, McKenzie KE, White CA, Sukumar S. Frequent p53 Gene Mutations and Novel Alleles in Familial Breast Cancer. Cancer Res. 15 de julio de 1994;54(14):3703-9.

Stephens PJ, Tarpey PS, Davies H, Van Loo P, Greenman C, Wedge DC, et al. The landscape of cancer genes and mutational processes in breast cancer. Nature. 16 de mayo de 2012;486(7403):400-4.

Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors. Nature. 4 de octubre de 2012;490(7418):61-70.

Esser C, Tomluk J. ©. J Invest Dermatol. mayo de 2005;124(5):1082-3.

Vine AE, Curtis D. Markers typed in genome-wide analysis identify regions showing deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. BMC Res Notes. 2 de marzo de 2009;2:29.

Wigginton JE, Cutler DJ, Abecasis GR. A Note on Exact Tests of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Am J Hum Genet. mayo de 2005;76(5):887-93.

Wittke-Thompson JK, Pluzhnikov A, Cox NJ. Rational Inferences about Departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Am J Hum Genet. junio de 2005;76(6):967-86.

Yu C, Zhang S, Zhou C, Sile S. A Likelihood Ratio Test of Population Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium for Case-Control Studies. Genet Epidemiol. abril de 2009;33(3):275-80.

Soto Calderon I, Montoya P, Ospina J, Bedoya G,, Ruiz-Linarez A. Inbreeding in Eastern Antioquia (Oriente), Colombia. Am J Hum Genet. 0ctubre de 2001;69(4 supplement):1414.

Aeschbacher S, Bürger R. The effect of linkage on establishment and survival of locally beneficial mutations. Genetics. mayo de 2014;197(1):317-36.

Stephan W, Song YS, Langley CH. The Hitchhiking Effect on Linkage Disequilibrium Between Linked Neutral Loci. Genetics. abril de 2006;172(4):2647-63.

Kuska B. Alfred Knudson: Two Hits Times 25 Years. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2 de abril de 1997;89(7):470-3.

Brooks J, Shore RE, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Currie D, Afanasyeva Y, Koenig KL, et al. Polymorphisms in RAD51, XRCC2, and XRCC3 are not related to breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res Cosponsored Am Soc Prev Oncol. abril de 2008;17(4):1016-9.

Cousineau I, Abaji C, Belmaaza A. BRCA1 regulates RAD51 function in response to DNA damage and suppresses spontaneous sister chromatid replication slippage: implications for sister chromatid cohesion, genome stability, and carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 15 de diciembre de 2005;65(24):11384-91.

Zhu G, Duffy DL, Turner DR, Ewen KR, Montgomery GW, Martin NG. Linkage and Association Analysis of Radiation Damage Repair Genes XRCC3 and XRCC5 with Nevus Density in Adolescent Twins. Twin Res Hum Genet. agosto de 2003;6(4):315-21.

Weitzel JN, Lagos V, Blazer KR, Nelson R, Ricker C, Herzog J, et al. Prevalence of BRCA mutations and founder effect in high-risk Hispanic families. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res Cosponsored Am Soc Prev Oncol. julio de 2005;14(7):1666-71.

Janin N, Andrieu N, Ossian K, Laugé A, Croquette MF, Griscelli C, et al. Breast cancer risk in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes: haplotype study in French AT families. Br J Cancer. junio de 1999;80(7):1042-5.

Gonzalez R, Silva JM, Dominguez G, Garcia JM, Martinez G, Vargas J, et al. Detection of loss of heterozygosity at RAD51, RAD52, RAD54 and BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in breast cancer: pathological correlations. Br J Cancer. octubre de 1999;81(3):503-9.

Publicado

2020-04-24

Número

Sección

Artículos Originales