Uso de vapeadores como factor de riesgo de injuria pulmonar aguda

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21615/cesspe.6989

Palabras clave:

sistemas electrónicos de suministro de nicotina, dispositivos para fumar, fumadores, vapor de cigarrillos electrónicos, vapeo

Resumen

Introducción: los cigarrillos electrónicos se comercializaron originalmente como una alternativa más segura a los cigarrillos combustibles tradicionales, aunque todavía exponen a los usuarios a toxinas y carcinógenos conocidos. Si bien hay pocos datos disponibles sobre los efectos a largo plazo del uso de cigarrillos electrónicos, miles de usuarios se han enfermado gravemente en una epidemia de lesión pulmonar aguda asociada al uso vapeadores y cigarrillos electrónicos en los Estados Unidos desde marzo de 2019. Se destaca la heterogeneidad de los componentes del líquido de los vapeadores y arroja dudas sobre la seguridad a largo plazo del uso de estos dispositivos. Objetivo: describir el daño y patología que surge a partir de la exposición de los dispositivos electrónicos de liberación de nicotina. Materiales y métodos: revisión de la literatura acerca del daño causado por la exposición y el uso de los dispositivos electrónicos de liberación de nicotina como los vapeadores y cigarrillos electrónicos. Resultados: la injuria pulmonar aguda asociada al uso de vapeadores y cigarrillos electrónicos es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda que puede ser grave y potencialmente mortal; en la serie más grande de 98 pacientes con injuria pulmonar aguda asociada al uso de vapeadores o cigarrillos electrónicos, el 76% de pacientes requirió oxígeno suplementario, 22% requirió ventilación no invasiva y 26% requirió intubación y ventilación mecánica. Hasta el 18 de febrero de 2021, más de 2800 pacientes habían sido hospitalizados por injuria pulmonar aguda asociada al uso de vapeadores en los Estados Unidos y, entre ellos, 68 habían muerto. Conclusiones: un factor de riesgo clave para la injuria pulmonar es el uso de vapeadores o cigarrillos electrónicos. Se desconoce la patogenia exacta, aunque algunos autores sugieren mecanismo inflamatorio y reactividad pulmonar, tampoco se ha descrito un tratamiento óptimo; lo único que resultó generar un avance creciente hacia la mejoría fue el cesar la exposición a las sustancias que componen los líquidos electrónicos.

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Biografía del autor/a

Samuel Tamayo López, Universidad CES

Estudiante del pregrado en Medicina, Universidad CES. 

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Publicado

2023-05-30

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Tamayo López S. Uso de vapeadores como factor de riesgo de injuria pulmonar aguda. CES SPE [Internet]. 30 de mayo de 2023 [citado 21 de julio de 2024];1(2):121-37. Disponible en: https://revistas.ces.edu.co/index.php/spe/article/view/6989

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