INTERVENCIÓN GRUPAL PARA DÍADAS MADRE-INFANTE PRIVADAS DE LIBERTAD: EFECTOS SOBRE LA DEPRESIÓN MATERNA Y EL DESARROLLO INFANTIL (Group Intervention for Imprisoned Mother-Infant Dyads: Effects on Mother's Depression and on Children's Development))

Marcia Olhaberry Huber, Marta Escobar Venegas, Camila Maluenda Contreras

Resumen


La sintomatología depresiva es frecuente en las mujeres durante el período periparto, impacta negativamente el desarrollo infantil y puede mostrar un incremento cuando la maternidad se desarrolla en contextos carcelarios. Objetivo: realizar intervenciones grupales en dos grupos, uno conformado por mujeres embarazadas y otro por díadas madre-infante, que se encontraban cumpliendo condena en cárceles chilenas, y evaluar su efecto en la sintomatología depresiva materna y en el desarrollo socioemocional infantil. Método: Participaron 60 madres recluidas en recintos carcelarios chilenos, 30 embarazadas y 30 díadas (madres-infante). Se realizaron análisis de regresión multinivel para medidas repetidas de la sintomatología depresiva materna (BDI) en ambos grupos y del desarrollo socioemocional (ASQ-SE) en los niños/as participantes en la intervención para díadas. Resultados: se observó una reducción significativa de la sintomatología depresiva en las mujeres embarazadas (b=-3.60, t(29)=-2.66, p=.031) y en las madres con hijos/as nacidos (b=-0.1499, t(93)=-5.3, p=<.001), así como una reducción de las dificultades en el desarrollo socioemocional infantil (b=-15.26, t(18)=-4.107, p=.001). Conclusión: se discute la relevancia de contar con alternativas psicoterapéuticas para el abordaje de la depresión en madres privadas de libertad y la promoción de un desarrollo socioemocional saludable de sus hijos/as.

 

Palabras clave: Depresión Materna, Reclusión, Recintos Carcelarios, Desarrollo Socioemocional Infantil, Intervención Grupal.

 

Abstract

Women may frequently present depressive symptomatology during the peripartum period, it impacts negatively child development and may show an increase when motherhood takes place in prison contexts. Furthermore, the negative effects of maternal depression on children’s development have been demonstrated by research findings. Aim: To evaluate the effect of two group interventions for pregnant women and mother-infant dyads with children under 2 years of age, on maternal depressive symptomatology and on the children’s development. Method: The sample considered 60 incarcerated women from Chilean prisons all over the country; 30 pregnant women and 30 mothers with children under 2 years of age.

Multilevel regression analysis for repeated measures were performed for maternal symptomatology (BDI) in both groups and for children’s development (ASQ-SE) in the dyad’s group. Results: It was observed Significant reductions in the depressive symptomatology frequencies in the pregnant women (b=-3.60, t(29)=-2.66, p=.031) and in the mothers who participated in the dyad’s intervention group (b=-0.1499, t(93)=-5.3, p=<.001), as well as a reduction in child social-emotional development difficulties (b=-15.26, t(18)=-4.107, p=.001). Conclusion: The discussion section addresses the relevance of providing psychological support to imprisoned mother/child dyads, to treat maternal depression and to promote a healthy development of the children who grow up in prison contexts.

 

Keywords: Maternal Depression, Mothers in Prison, Prisons, Children’s Socio-Emotional Development, Group Interventions, Mothers, Pregnancy, Prison, Group Therapy.

 


Palabras clave


depresión materna; reclusión; recintos carcelarios; desarrollo socioemocional infantil; intervención grupal; Maternal depression; mothers in prison; prisons; children’s socio-emotional; evelopment; group interventions

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