CONTROL DE LA INTERFERENCIA EN EL TRASTORNO POR DÉFICIT DE ATENCIÓN E HIPERACTIVIDAD (TDAH): REVISIÓN (Interference Control in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Review)

Giomar Jiménez-Figueroa, José Armando Vidarte Claros, Francia Restrepo de Mejía

Resumen


Introducción: Investigaciones sobre el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) han evidenciado alteraciones en los procesos inhibitorios, en especial en el control de la interferencia, lo que explicaría las dificultades de los niños con TDAH para inhibir estímulos distractores y controlar su comportamiento. Objetivo: Identificar la literatura científica disponible sobre el desempeño en tareas que evalúan el control de la interferencia en niños con TDAH. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos científicos en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Sciencie con los términos ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Interference Control, Stroop y Flanker, publicados entre los años 2010 y 2017. Se identificaron 520 artículos, después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 33 para hacer el análisis descriptivo. Resultados: El control de la interferencia se ve afectado en niños con TDAH, evidenciado en mayores tiempos de reacción, de ejecución, variabilidad de respuesta y porcentaje de errores, principalmente en los ensayos incongruentes. Igualmente, se mostraron patrones de activación cortical alterados y variaciones en potenciales evocados cognitivos. Conclusiones: El control de la interferencia se encuentra alterado en niños con TDAH, y el uso de más de un método de evaluación de los niños con este Trastorno puede ser útil para brindar más información del funcionamiento en el control de la interferencia en términos de tiempo y precisión en las tareas.

 

Palabras claves: Control de la Interferencia. Niños. Funciones Ejecutivas. TDAH. Stroop. Flanker.

 

Introduction: research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has shown alterations in interference control, which would explain the difficulties of children with ADHD to inhibit distracting stimuli and regulate their behavior. Objective: identifying available scientific literature about performance on task that evaluate the interference control in children with ADHD. Method: a search on Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases with the terms ADHD, interference control, Stroop and Flanker, published between 2010 and 2017 was performed. 520 articles were identified, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria 33 articles were selected for descriptive analysis. Results: interference control is affected in children with ADHD, evidenced in greater reaction and execution times, variability of response and a high errors rate, primarily in incongruent trials. Altered cortical activation patterns and variations in cognitive evoked potentials were also shown. Conclusions: Interference control is altered in children with ADHD, the use of more than one evaluation method may be useful to provide more information on the functioning of interference control in terms of time and accuracy on tasks.

 

Key words: Interference Control. Children. Executive Functions. ADHD. Stroop. Flanker.


Palabras clave


Interferencia; TDAH; evaluación; Stroop; flanker

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