FILHOS DAS FRONTEIRAS: REVISÃO DE LITERATURA SOBRE IMIGRAÇÃO INVOLUNTÁRIA, INFÂNCIA E SAÚDE MENTAL (Literary Review Regarding Involuntary Immigration, Childhood and Mental Health)

Cecília Braga Bezerra, Lucienne Martins Borges, Maiara Pereira Pereira Cunha

Resumen


Resumo

Na atualidade há um expressivo contingente de refugiados que deixam suas casas devido a conflitos –guerras, perseguições e violações dos direitos humanos– em busca de novas oportunidades. O Brasil tem se tornado um dos destinos destas pessoas, inclusive recebendo crianças refugiadas. Este estudo objetiva revisar a literatura científica disponível em bases de dados eletrônicas nos últimos treze anos a respeito dos impactos psicológicos da imigração involuntária em crianças. A pesquisa foi realizada em cinco bases de dados (BVS-PSI, Periódicos Capes, Francis, Redalyc e PsycARTICLES), a partir da interseção dos descritores “immigration”, “children” e “mental health”. Selecionou-se 48 artigos para análise, sendo constatada a ausência de publicações nacionais. Os conteúdos abordados nos trabalhos foram agrupados constituindo três categorias, a saber: 1) desafios enfrentados pelas crianças ao chegar ao país de acolhimento, 2) impactos psicológicos do processo migratório forçado na infância e 3) propostas de intervenção na saúde mental dos pequenos refugiados. A partir das informações obtidas, enfatiza-se a elaboração de políticas públicas no contexto brasileiro, sobretudo direcionadas a Atenção Básica com vistas a considerar as singularidades da criança refugiada no seu acolhimento.

Palavras-chave: Refugiados, Imigrantes, “Imigração Involuntária”, Deslocadas, Infância, Crianças, Saúde Mental.

 

Abstract

Nowadays, a significant number of refugees who depart from their homes due to conflicts such as war, persecution, and human rights violations are searching for new opportunities. Brazil has become one of these receiving countries that not only is assisting adult refugees but also children. This study aims to review the scientific literature available on electronic databases in the last thirteen years about the psychological impact of involuntary migration in children. The research was conducted in five databases (BVS-PSI, Capes Journals, Francis, Redalyc and PsycARTICLES), from the intersection of "immigration", "children" and "mental health" descriptors. For the analysis, forty-five articles were selected, and it was noticed the lack of national publications (Brazil). The contents addressed in the works were grouped into three categories: 1) challenges faced by children during their arrival in the receiving country, 2) psychological impacts of forced migration process in childhood, 3) intervention proposals on mental health of refugee children. Based on the information obtained, it was stressed the formulation of public policies in the Brazilian context , focused on Basic Health Care and particular needs of the refugee children by the time of their reception.

Keywords: Refugees, Immigrants, Involuntary Immigration, Displaced, Childhood, Children, Mental Health.

 

Resumen

En la actualidad, existe una cantidad significativa de refugiados que abandonan sus hogares debido a conflictos: -guerra, persecución y violaciones de los derechos humanos- en busca de nuevas oportunidades. Brasil se ha convertido en uno de los destinos de estas personas, incluso recibiendo niños refugiados. Este estudio tiene como objetivo revisar la literatura científica disponible en bases de datos electrónicas en los últimos trece años sobre el impacto psicológico de la migración involuntaria en niños. La investigación se realizó en cinco bases de datos (BVS-PSI, Capes Journals, Francis, Redalyc y PsycARTICLES), a partir de la intersección de los descriptores "inmigración", "niños" y "salud mental". Se seleccionaron 45 artículos para su análisis, siendo constatada la ausencia de publicaciones nacionales (Brasil). Los contenidos abordados en los trabajos se agruparon en tres categorías: 1) desafíos que enfrentan los niños al llegar al país de acogida, 2) impactos psicológicos del proceso de migración forzosa en la infancia y 3) propuestas de intervención en la salud mental de los niños refugiados. Con base en la información obtenida, se enfatiza la elaboración de políticas públicas en el contexto brasileño, principalmente dirigidas a Atención Básica con vistas a considerar las singularidades del niño refugiado en su proceso de acogida.

Palabras clave: Refugiados, Inmigrantes, Inmigración Involuntaria, Desplazados, Infancia, Niños, Salud Mental.

 


Palabras clave


refugiados; infância; saúde mental; imigrantes; “imigração involuntária”; Deslocadas; crianças

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Referencias


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