STIGMATISING ATTITUDES TOWARDS SUICIDE BY GENDER AND AGE (Actitudes Estigmatizadoras Hacia el Suicidio por Género y Edad)

Adelino A. G. Pereira, Francisco M. S. Cardoso

Resumen


This cross-sectional study aimed to analyse the association between gender and age with stigmatising attitudes towards suicide. We collected a non-probabilistic sample of 344 Portuguese individuals aged 16 to 66. The data were collected via questionnaire and then analysed with frequency analysis and chi-squared test. Results suggest that more men revealed stigmatising attitudes. However, the gender effect was more evident within adolescents than within adults. Age effect was also found, revealing that adults hold more stigmatising attitudes than adolescents, but this effect was more evident within female gender. Furthermore, all participants considered that suicide attempters should undergo psychotherapy. These results suggest that gender and age are relevant variables in the implementation of suicide prevention measures focused on reducing stigma and promoting help-seeking.

Keywords: Suicide, Stigma, Gender, Age.

 

Resumen

Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo analizar la asociación entre el género, la edad y las actitudes estigmatizadoras hacia el suicidio. Se seleccionó una muestra no probabilística de 344 individuos de la población portuguesa de entre 16 y 66 años. Los datos fueron recogidos a través de un cuestionario y posteriormente analizados con análisis de frecuencias y la prueba del Chi-cuadrado. Los resultados sugieren que más hombres revelaron actitudes estigmatizadoras. Sin embargo, el efecto de género fue más evidente en los adolescentes que en los adultos. También se encontró un efecto de la edad, mostrando que los adultos tienen actitudes más estigmatizadoras que los adolescentes, pero este efecto fue más evidente dentro del género femenino. Además, todos los participantes consideraron que los que intentan suicidarse deberían someterse a psicoterapia. Estos resultados sugieren que el género y la edad son variables relevantes en el desarrollo de medidas de prevención del suicidio centradas en reducir el estigma y promover la búsqueda de ayuda.

Palabras clave: Suicidio, Estigma, Género, Edad.

 


Palabras clave


Suicide; Stigma; Gender; Age

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Andersson, T. (2009). Suicide. In O’Brien (Ed.), Encyclopedia of gender and society (vol. 1, pp. 816-820). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Arnautovska, U., & Grad, O. (2010). Attitudes toward suicide in the adolescent population. Crisis, 31(1), 22–29. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000009

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging Adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469

Batterham, P., Calear, A., & Christensen, H. (2012). The stigma of suicide scale: psychometric properties and correlates of the stigma of suicide. Crisis, 34(1), 13-21. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000156

Batterham, P., Calear, A., & Christensen, H. (2013). Correlates of suicide stigma and suicide literacy in the community. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43(4), 406-417. doi:10.1111/sltb.12026

Bayet, A. (1922). Le suicide et la morale. Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan.

Bilsker, D., & White, J. (2011). The silent epidemic of male suicide. BC Medical Journal, 53(10), 529-534.

Bjerkeset, O., Romundstad, P., & Gunnell, D. (2008). Gender differences in the association of mixed anxiety and depression with suicide. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 474-475. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.045203

Boldt, M. (1983). Normative evaluations of suicide and death: a cross-generational study. Omega, 13(2), 145-157.

British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (2010). Attitudes to counselling and psychotherapy: key findings. Retrieved from http://www.itsgoodtotalk.org.uk/assets/docs/Attitudes-to-Counselling-Psychotherapy-Key-Findings-BACP-June-2010_1331121114.pdf

Canetto, S., & Sakinofsky, I. (1998).The gender paradox in suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 28(1), 1-23.

Carpiniello, B., & Pinna, F. (2017). The Reciprocal Relationship between Suicidality and Stigma. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00035

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/ wisqars/index.html.

Colucci, E., & Minas, H. (2013). Attitudes towards youth suicide: a comparison between Italian, Indian, and Australian students. In Y. Kashima, E. Kashima, & R. Beatson (Eds.), Steering the Cultural Dynamics: Selected Papers from the 2010 Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 111-117). Melbourne, Australia: International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Corrigan, P., Kerr, A., & Knudsen, L. (2005). The stigma of mental illness: explanatory models and methods for change. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 11(3), 179-190. doi:10.1016/j.appsy.2005.07.001

Corrigan, P., Morris, S., Michaels, P., Rafacz, J., & Rüsch, N. (2012). Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: a meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963-973. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201100529

Crosby, A., Han, B., Ortega, L., Parks, S., & Gfroerer, J. (2011). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adults aged ≥ 18 years – United States, 2008-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(13), 1-22.

Curran, D. (1987). Adolescent suicidal behavior. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

DeLeo, D., Bertolote, J., & Lester, D. (2002). Self-directed violence. In E. Krug, L. Dahlberg, J. Mercy, A. Zwi & R. Lozano (Eds.), World report on violence and health (pp. 183-212). Geneva: World Health Organization.

Drapeau, C., & McIntosh, J. (2015). U.S.A. suicide: 2013 official final data. Retrieved from http://www.suicidology.org/portals/14/docs/resources/factsheets/2013datapgsv2alt.pdf

Durkheim, E. (1897). Le suicide. Étude de sociologie. Paris: Les Presses Universitaires de France.

Eskin, M. (1995). Adolescents’ attitudes toward suicide, and a suicidal peer: a comparison between Swedish and Turkish high school students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 201-207. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.1995.tb00979.x

Frey, L., Hans, J., & Cerel, J. (2016). Perceptions of suicide stigma. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 37(2), 95-103. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000358

Gold, L. (2005). Gender issues in suicide. Psychiatric Times, 22(11), 64-72.

Goldsmith, S. K., Pellmar, T. C., Kleinman, A. M., & Bunney, W. E. (2002). Society and Culture. In S. K. Goldsmith, T. C. Pellmar, A. M. Kleinman & W. E. Bunney (Eds.), Reducing suicide: a national imperative (pp. 193-228). Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 777-780. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301056

Hollinger, J. (2016). Adolescent atitudes toward and perceptions of suicide, stigma, and help-seeking behavior (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.pcom.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1362&context=psychology_dissertations

International Association for Suicide Prevention (2013). Stigma: a major barrier to suicide prevention. Retrieved from https://www.iasp.info/wspd/pdf/2013/2013_wspd_brochure.pdf

Joiner, T. (2010). Myths about suicide. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Haffner, J., Steen, R., Roos, J., Klett, M., … Resch, F. (2011). Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study. BMC Public Health, 11(597). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-597

Lee, S., Tsang, A., Li, X.-Y., Phillips, M., & Kleinman, A. (2007). Attitudes toward suicide among Chinese people in Hong Kong. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37(5), 565-575. doi:10.1521/suli.2007.37.5.565

Lester, D. (2013). Culture and Suicide. In E. Colucci & D. Lester (Eds.), Suicide and culture: understanding the context (pp. 59-90). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe Publishing.

Lester, D., & Bean, J. (1992). Attributions of causes to suicide. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132(5), 679-680.

Li, A., Huang, X., Hao, B., O'Dea, B., Christensen, H., & Zhu, T. (2015). Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs. PeerJ, 8. doi:10.7717/peerj.1209

Li, X., & Phillips, M. (2010). Cross-sectional survey on the acceptability of suicide among rural residents, urban residents and college students from three locations in China. Crisis, 31(4), 183-193. doi:10.1027/0027-5910/a000024

Livingston, J., & Boyd, J. (2010). Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 71(12), 2150-2161. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.030

Niederkrotenthaler, T., Reidenberg, D., Till, B., & Gould, M. (2014). Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(Suppl. 2), S235-S243. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.06.010

Nock, M., Borges, G., Bromet, E., Cha, C., Kessler, R., & Lee, S. (2008). Suicide and suicidal behavior. Epidemiologic Reviews, 30, 133-154. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxn002

Oliffe, J., Ogrodniczuk, J., Gordon, S., Creighton, G., Kelly, M., Black, N., & Mackenzie, C. (2016). Stigma in male depression and suicide: a canadian sex comparison study. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(3), 302-310. doi:10.1007/s10597-015-9986-x

Park, S., Kim, M.-J., Cho, M., & Lee, J.-Y. (2015). Factors affecting stigma toward suicide and depression: a Korean nationwide study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(8), 811-817. doi:10.1177/0020764015597015

Pereira, A., & Cardoso, F. (2015). Suicidal ideation in university students: prevalence and association with school and gender. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 25(62), 299-306. doi:10.1590/1982-43272562201503

Pompili, M. (2007). Stigma and suicide risk. In R. Tatarelli, G. Pompili & P. Giradi (Eds.), Suicide in Schizophrenia. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Biomedical Books.

Pompili, M., Mancinelli, I., & Tatarelli, R. (2003). Stigma as a cause of suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(2), 173-174. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.2.173-a

Poreddi, V., Thimmaiah, R., Ramu, R., Selvi, S., Gandhi, S., Ramachandra, & Math, S. (2016). Gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(2), 228-232. doi:10.1007/s10597-015-9913-1

Quinnett, P. (2014). Men and suicide prevention: why can’t a man be more like a woman. In D. Lester, J. Gunn III & P. Quinnett (Eds.), Suicide in men: how men differ from women in expressing their distress. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher, LTD.

Reynders, A., Kerkhof, A., Molenberghs, G., & Van Audenhove, C. (2014). Attitudes and stigma in relation to help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in low and high suicide rate regions. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(2), 231-239. doi:10.1007/s00127-013-0745-4

Segal, D., Mincic, M., Coolidge, F., & O’Riley, A. (2004). Attitudes toward suicide and suicidal risk among younger and older persons. Death Studies, 28(7), 671-678. doi:10.1080/07481180490476524

Shimizu, Y. (2016). How Japan Reduced Suicides: A Law That Changed Society – The Japanese Model. In P. Courtet (Ed.), Understanding Suicide (pp. 225-238). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Siau, C. S., Wee, L. H., Ibrahim, N., Visvalingam, U., & Wahab, S. (2017). Cross-cultural sdaptation and validation of the Attitudes Toward Suicide Questionnaire among healthcare personnel in Malaysia. Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing, 54. doi: 10.1177/0046958017707295

Stack, S., & Kposowa, A. (2008). The association of suicide rates with individual-level suicide attitudes: a cross-national analysis. Social Science Quarterly, 89(1), 39-59. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00520.x

Sudak, H., Maxim, K., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Suicide and stigma: A review of the literature and personal reflections. Academic Psychiatry, 32, 136–142. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.32.2.136

Wallis, L. (2013, September 23). Is 25 the new cut-off point for adulthood? BBC News Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24173194

Witte, T. K., Smith, A. R., & Joiner, T. E. (2010). Reason for cautious optimism? Two studies suggesting reduced stigma against suicide. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 611-626. doi:10.1002/jclp.20691

World Health Organization (2014). Preventing suicide: a global imperative. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Zou, Y., Leung, R., Lin, S., Yang, M., Lu, T., Li., X., … Hao, Y. (2016). Attitudes towards suicide in urban and rural China: a population based, cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 16. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0872-z




Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

 

 

Revista CES Psicología/ISSN 2011-3080 Facultad de Psicología Universidad CES

Publicada desde 2008

Ultima actualización Mayo 2 de 2019

 

Copyright© 2011 Universidad CES, Calle 10A No. 22 - 04, Medellín, Colombia

 

http://www.ces.edu.co/