MEDIDAS COMPORTAMENTAIS DE PRESENÇA EM AMBIENTES VIRTUAIS (Behavioral measures of presence in virtual environments)

Verônica Bender Haydu, Marcela Roberta Jacyntho Zacarin, Allan Patrick de Souza Domingos, Elizeu Borloti

Resumen


Resumo

Para identificar e analisar as funções de respostas de interação com os estímulos de um ambiente virtual e suas relações com o grau de senso de presença relatado, utilizou-se o Xbox 360® com o jogo Kinect Adventures. Foram executadas quatro fases do jogo e feita aplicação de um questionário. As respostas verbais dirigidas aos estímulos virtuais não apresentaram um padrão comportamental, mas a frequência de respostas não verbais direcionadas a estímulos virtuais (RNV-EV) e o senso de presença aumentaram com o avanço nos estágios. Sugere-se que a frequência de RNV-EV é uma medida complementar apropriada do senso de presença e que fazer análises funcionais dos comportamentos emitidos durante a imersão pode ser uma forma útil de acessar o senso de presença.

 

Palavras chave: Senso de Presença, Xbox 360, Realidade Virtual, Análise do Comportamento, Comportamentos Privados.

 

Abstract

To identify and analyze the functions of interactions responses to the stimuli of a virtual environment and their relation to the degree of reported presence of sense, the Xbox 360® with the Kinect Adventures game was used. Four phases of the game were executed and a questionnaire was administered. Verbal responses directed to virtual stimuli did not show a behavioral pattern, but the frequency of non-verbal responses directed to virtual stimuli (NVS-VS) and the sense of presence increased with the advance in stages. It is suggested that the frequency of VR-VS is an appropriate complementary measure of the sense of presence and perform functional analyzes of behavior during immersion can be useful to access the sense of presence.

 

Keywords: Sense of Presence, Xbox 360, Virtual Reality, Behavior Analysis, Private Behaviors.

Resumen

Para identificar y analizar las funciones de las respuestas de interacción a los estímulos de un ambiente virtual y su relación con el grado de sentido de presencia relatado, se utilizó el Xbox 360® con el juego Kinect Adventures. Se llevaron a cabo cuatro fases del juego y un cuestionario. Las respuestas verbales dirigidas a los estímulos virtuales no mostraron un patrón de conducta, pero la frecuencia de respuestas no verbales dirigidas a los estímulos virtuales (RNV-EV) y la presencia aumentaron con el avance en etapas. Se sugiere que la frecuencia de RNV-EV es una medida complementaria apropiada de la presencia y que hacer análisis funcional de la conducta emitida durante la inmersión puede ser una forma útil para acceder al sentido de presencia.

 

Palabras clave: Sentido de Presencia, Xbox 360, Realidad Virtuales, Análisis de la Conducta, Comportamientos Privados.

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21615/cesp.9.1.4


Palabras clave


Presencia, Xbox 360, Realidad virtuales, Análisis de la Conducta, Comportamientos privados

Citas


Alsina-Jurnet, I., Gutiérrez-Maldonado J., & Rangel-Gómez, M. V. (2011). The role of presence in the level of anxiety experienced in clinical virtual environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 504-512. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.09.018. [link]

Beck, J. G., Palyo, S. A., Winer, E. H., Schwagler, B. E., & Ang, E. J. (2007). Virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD symptoms after a road accident: An uncontrolled case series. Behavior Therapy, 38, 39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.04.001 [link]

Busscher, B., Vliegher, D., Ling, Y., & Brinkman, W. P. (2011). Physiological measures and self-report to evaluate neutral virtual reality worlds. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation, 4, 15-25. [link]

Cunha, L. S., & Borloti, E. B. (2005). Skinner, o sentimento e o sentido. In E. B. Borloti, S. R. F. Enumo & M. Ribeiro (Eds.), Análise do comportamento: teorias e práticas (pp. 47-57). Santo André: ESETec. [link]

Darwich, R. A., & Tourinho, E. Z (2005). Respostas emocionais à luz do modelo causal de seleção por consequências. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Comportamental e Cognitiva, 2, 107-118. [link]

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as datas. Massachusetts: MIT. [in press]

Ferreira, D. C., Tadaiesky, L. T., Coêlho, N. L., Neno, S., & Tourinho, E. Z. (2010). A interpretação de cognições e emoções com o conceito de eventos privados e a abordagem analítico-comportamental da ansiedade e da depressão. Perspectivas em Análise do Comportamento, 1, 70-85. [link]

Freeman, J., Avons, S. E., Meddis, R., Pearson, D. E., & IJsselsteijn, W. (2000). Using behavioral realism to estimate presence: a study of the utility of postural responses to motion stimuli. Presence, 9, 149-164. doi: 10.1162/105474600566691 [link]

International Society for Presence Research. (2000). The Concept of Presence: Explication Statement, Recuperado em 3 de dezembro de 2014 de http://ispr.info/ [link]

Josman, N., Reisberg, A., Weiss, P. L., Garcia-Palacios, A., & Hoffman, H. G. (2008). BusWorld: An analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11, 775-777. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2008.0048 [link]

McCall, R., O'Neill, S., & Carroll, F. (2004). Measuring presence in virtual environments. In CHI EA '04: CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. (pp. 783-784). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. doi: 10.1145/985921.985934 [link]

Nowak. K., Krcmar, M., & Farrar, K. M. (2008). The causes and consequences of presence: considering the influence of violent video games on presence and aggression, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environment, 17, 256-268. doi: 10.1162/pres.17.3.256 [link]

Persky, S., & Blascovich, J. (2008). Immersive virtual video game play and presence: Influences on aggressive feelings and behavior. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environment, 17, 57-72. doi: 10.1162/pres.17.1.57 [link]

Price, M., & Anderson, P. (2007). The role of presence in virtual reality exposure therapy. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 742-751. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.11.002 [link]

Price, M., Mehta, N., Tone, E. B., & Anderon, P. L. (2011). Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 763-770. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.03.004 [link]

Roussou, M., Oliver, M., & Slater, M. (2006). The virtual playground: An educational virtual reality environment for evaluating interactivity and conceptual learning. Virtual Reality, 10, 227-240. doi: 10.1007/s10055-006-0035-5 [link]

Sanchez-Vives M. V., & Slater, M. (2005). From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 332-339. doi: 10.1038/nrn1651 [link]

Särkelä, H., Takatalo, J., May, P., Laakso, M. & Nyman, G. (2009). The movement patterns and the experiential components of virtual environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67, 787-799. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.05.003 [link]

Safir, M. P., Wallach, H. S., & Bar-Zvi, M. (2012). Virtual reality cognitive-behavior therapy for public speaking anxiety: one year follow-up. Behavior modification, 36, 235-246. [link]

Skinner, B. F. (1945). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52, 270-277. doi: 10.1037/h0062535 [link]

Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. New York: Applenton-Century-Crofts. [link]

Skinner, B. F. (2006). Sobre o Behaviorismo. (10ª ed.) (M. da P. Villalobos, Trad.). São Paulo: Cultrix (Obra original publicada em 1974). [link]

Skinner, B. F. (2007). Ciência e Comportamento humano. (11ª ed.) (J. C. Todorov e R. Azzi, Trads.). São Paulo: Martins Fontes (Obra original publicada em 1953). [link]

Slater, M. (2004). How colorful was your day? Why questionnaires cannot assess presence in virtual environments. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13, 484-493. doi: 10.1162/1054746041944849 [link]

Tourinho, E. Z. (2006). Private stimuli, covert responses, and private events: Conceptual remarks. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 13-31. [link]

Van Someren, M. W., Barnard, Y. F., & Sandberg, J. A. C. (1994).The think aloud method: A practical guide to modeling cognitive processes. London: Academic Press. [link]

Vieira, G. de P., Araujo, D. F. G. H. de, Leite, M. A. A., Orsini, M., & Correa, C. L. (2014). Virtual reality in physical rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease. Revista Brasileira de Crescimento e Desenvolvimento Humano, 24, 31-41. [link]

Villani, D., Repetto, C., Cipresso, P., & Riva, G. (2012). May I experience more presence in doing the same thing in virtual reality than in reality? An answer from a simulated job interview. Interacting with Computers, 24, 265-272. doi: 10.1016/j.intcom.2012.04.008 [link]

Von der Pütten, A. M. R., Klatt, J., Broeke, S. T., McCall, R., Krämer, N. C., Wetzel, R. et al. (2012). Subjective and behavioral presence measurement and interactivity in the collaborative augmented reality game TimeWarp. Interacting with Computers, 24, 317-325. doi: 0.1016/j.intcom.2012.03.004 [link]

Wissmath, B., Weibel, D., & Mast, F. W. (2010). Measuring presence with verbal versus pictorial scales: a comparison between online- and ex post-ratings. Virtual Reality, 14(1), 43-53. doi 10.1007/s10055-009-0127-0 [link]

Witmer, B., & Singer, M. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7, 225-240. doi: 10.1162/105474698565686 [link]


Texto completo: PDF HTML

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

 

Revista CES Psicología/ISSN 2011-3080 Facultad de Psicología Universidad CES

Publicada desde 2008

Ultima actualización Julio 13 de 2018

 

Copyright © 2011 Universidad CES, Calle 10A No. 22 - 04, Medellín, Colombia

 

http://www.ces.edu.co/