ESCALA DE EXPERIENCIAS DE DISCRIMINACIÓN: CONSISTENCIA Y ESTRUCTURA INTERNA EN ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA (Experiences of Discrimination Scale: Internal consistency and structure in medical students)

Adalberto Campo-Arias, Heidi Celina Oviedo, Edwin Herazo

Resumen


El objetivo fue estimar la consistencia y estructura interna de la Escala de Experiencias de Discriminación (EED) en estudiantes de medicina de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio de validación con 361 estudiantes, entre 18 y 30 años, y 59,7%, mujeres. La EED agrupa dos escalas distintas, discriminación general (EED-G) y preocupación por discriminación (EED-P). Se determinó alfa de Cronbach, omega de McDonald y estructura interna (análisis factorial exploratorio). La EED-G mostró alfa de Cronbach de 0,88 y omega de McDonald de 0,89; y la EED-P, 0,80 para ambos coeficientes. La EED-G presentó un factor que explicó 52,9% de la varianza; y EED-P, una dimensión fue responsable del 62,5% de la varianza. Se concluye que la EED presenta buen desempeño psicométrico, EED-G y EED-P son dos escalas unidimensionales con alta consistencia interna.

 

Palabras claves: Escala de Experiencias de Discriminación, Validez, Reproducibilidad de Resultados, Estudios de Validación, Consistencia Interna, Psicometría, Estudiantes de Medicina, Racismo.


Abstract

The objective was to estimate the internal consistency and structure of the Experiences of Discrimination Scale (EDS) in medical students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A validation study was conducted. A total of 361 student participated, aged between 18 to 30, and 59.7% were women. The EED includes two separated scales, overall discrimination (O-EDS) and concerns about discrimination (W-EDS). Cronbach alpha, McDonald omega and internal structure (exploratory factor analysis) were determined. The O-EDS showed Cronbach alpha of 0.88 and McDonald omega, 0.89; and W-EDS, showed 0.80 for both coefficients. The O-EDS consists in a factor that explained 52.9% of the variance; and W-EDS one dimension was responsible of 62.5% of the variance. It is concluded that EDS shows an appropriate psychometric performance, both W-EDS and O-EDS are one-dimensional scales with high internal consistency.

 

Keywords: Experiences of Discrimination Scale, Validity, Test Validity, Test Reliability, Reproducibility of Results, Validation Studies, Psychometrics, Medical Students, Racism.


Palabras clave


Escala de Experiencias de Discriminación; EED; Validez; Reproducibilidad de Resultados; Estudios de Validación; Consistencia Interna; Psicometría; Estudiantes de Medicina; Racismo;

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Alarcon, A. M., & Muñoz N, S. (2008). Medición en salud: Algunas consideraciones metodológicas. Revista Médica de Chile, 136, 125-130.

Bartlett, M. S. (1950). Test of significance in factor analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 3, 77-85.

Bastos, J. L., Celeste, R. K., Faerstein, E., & Barros, A. J. (2010). Racial discrimination and health: a systematic review of scales with a focus on their psychometric properties. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1091-1099.

Campo-Arias, A. (2013). Informe de la consistencia interna de las escalas en las investigaciones publicadas en la Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 42, 136-143.

Campo-Arias, A., & Oviedo, H. C. (2008). Propiedades psicométricas de una escala: la consistencia interna. Revista de Salud Pública, 10, 831-839.

Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 10, 7 (http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n7.pdf).

Cronbach, J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

García, M. J., Rodríguez, F., & Carmona, L. (2009). Validación de cuestionarios. Reumatología Clínica, 5, 171-177.

Gee, G. C. (2002). A multilevel analysis of the relationship between institutional and individual racial discrimination and health status. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 615-623.

Gorsuch, R. L. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis: its role in item analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 532-560.

Goto, J., Couto, P., & Bastos, J. (2013). Revisão sistemática dos estudos epidemiológicos sobre discriminação interpessoal e saúde mental. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 29, 445-459.

Gravlee, C. C. (2009). How race becomes biology: embodiment of social inequality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139, 47-57.

Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006). Racism and health: the relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 1428-1441.

Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 813-821.

Henson, R. K., & Roberts, J. K. (2006). Use of exploratory factor analysis in published research common errors and some comment on improved practice. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 393-416.

Hernández-Girón, C., Orozco-Núñez, E., & Arredondo-López, A. (2012). Modelos conceptuales y paradigmas en salud pública. Revista de Salud Pública, 14, 315-324.

Hruschka, D. J., & Hadley, C., (2008). A glossary of culture in epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 947-951.

Jackson, J. S., Torres, M., Caldwell, C. H., Neighbors, H. W., Nesse, R. M., et al. (2004). The National Survey of American Life: a study of racial, ethnic and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 196-207.

Jones, K. P., Peddie, C. I., Gilrane, V. L., King, E. B., & Gray, A. L. (2013). Not so subtle. A meta-analytic investigation of the correlates of subtle and overt discrimination. Journal Management, (ahead of print).

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 34, 31-36.

Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. Y. (2002). Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 624-631.

Krieger, N. (2012). Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: an ecosocial approach. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 936-945.

Krieger, N., & Sidney, S. (1996). Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA Study of young black and white adults. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1370-1378.

Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C., & Barbeau, E. M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 1576-1596.

Laó-Montes, A., Mosquera, C., & Rodríguez, C. (2010). Debates sobre ciudadanía y políticas raciales en las Américas Negras. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Valle.

McDonald, R. P. (1970). Theoretical foundations of principal factor analysis and alpha factor analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 23, 1-21.

Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., & Hambleton, R. K. (2013). Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests: segunda edición. Psicothema, 25, 151-157.

Oviedo, H. C., & Campo-Arias, A. (2005). Aproximación al uso del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 34, 572-580.

Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 888-901.

Pascoe, E. A., & Smart, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 531-554.

Ministerio de Salud de Colombia (1991). Resolución 008430 por la cual se establecen las normas científicas, técnicas y administrativas para la investigación en salud. Santa Fe de Bogotá: Autor.

Sánchez, R., & Echeverry, J. (2004). Validación de escalas de medición en salud. Revista de Salud Pública, 6, 302-318.

Sousa, V. M., & Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation and Clinical Practice, 17, 268-274.

SPSS Inc. (2007). PSS for windows 16.0. Chicago: Author.

Streiner, D. L. (1994). Figuring out factors: the use and misuse of factor analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 135-140.

Trivedi, A. N., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2006). Perceived discrimination and use of preventive health services. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 553-558.

Weiss, M. G. (2001). Cultural epidemiology: an introduction and overview. Anthropological Medicine, 8, 5-29.

Weiss, M. G., Ramakrishna, J., & Somma, D. (2006). Health-related stigma: Rethinking concepts and interventions. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 11, 277-287.

Williams, D. R., & Williams-Morris, R. (2000). Racism and mental health: the African American experience. Ethnicity & Heath, 5, 243-268.

Zinbarg, R. E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li, W. (2005). Cronbach’s α, Revelle’s β, and McDonald’s ωh: Their relations with each other and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Psychometrika, 70, 123-133.




Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

 

 

Revista CES Psicología/ISSN 2011-3080 Facultad de Psicología Universidad CES

Publicada desde 2008

Ultima actualización Septiembre 2 de 2019

 

Copyright© 2011 Universidad CES, Calle 10A No. 22 - 04, Medellín, Colombia

 

http://www.ces.edu.co/