Variaciones genéticas, polimorfismos y reabsorción radicular externa asociada a tratamientos ortodóncicos. Revisión de literatura

Hector Paulo Sandoval-Vidal

Resumen


Aunque la reabsorción radicular apical externa (RRAE) es una secuela comúny poco deseable de los tratamientos ortodóncicos, esta puede ocurrirtambién en ausencia de éste. El origen, grado y severidad de la RRAE duranteel tratamiento de ortodoncia es multifactorial, involucrando tanto a factoresbiológicos como ambientales. Dentro de los factores biológicos, los factoresgenéticos representan al menos el 50% de la variación en la RRAE. La variacióngenética en pacientes sometidos a tratamientos de ortodoncia ha sidoreportada en estudios de heredabilidad, in vitro, retrospectivos y metanalisis,entre otros, con el fin de dar a conocer las variables genéticas y polimorfismosy pueden ayudar a explicar las diferentes respuestas al tratamientoortodóntico en los pacientes. El estudio de los polimorfismos genéticos seha convertido en tema de gran interés y debate, debido a la importancia queparecen tener como moduladores de los procesos de reabsorción ósea. Poresta razón el objetivo de este artículo fue hacer una revisión acerca de lasprincipales variaciones genéticas y polimorfismos que se relacionan con laRRAE en pacientes tratados ortodónticamente.

 

Genetic Variations, Polymorphisms and external apicalroot resorption associated with orthodontic treatments.Literature review

External Apical Root Reabsorption (EARR) is a common and undesiderableorthodontic treatments sequel, but it may also occur in absence of orthodontictreatment. The origin, extent and severity of EARR during orthodontictreatment are multifactorial, involving both biologic and environmentalfactors. Genetic factors represent at least 50% of the variation in EARR. Thegenetic variation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatments has beenreported in studies of heritability, in vitro, retrospective and meta-analysis,among others, in order to introduce the genetic variables and polymorphisms, helping to explain the different responses to orthodontic treatment. Geneticpolymorphisms may explaining different responses to orthodontic treatment in patients.The study of genetic polymorphisms has become a topic of great interest anddebate, because of the importance they seem to have as modulators of bone reabsorptionprocesses. For this reason, the objective of this article is to make a reviewabout the main genetic variables and polymorphisms in association with EARR inpatients treated orthodontically.

Keywords: root resorption, genetic predisposition, polymorphism, genetic.


Palabras clave


reabsorción radicular, predisposición genética, polimorfismo genético.

Citas


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