Haemonchosis en una ternera raza Brahman en el trópico alto del Nordeste Antioqueño

David Villar, Sara López-Osorio, Aura María Giraldo-Zuluaga, Leonardo Navarro, Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez

Resumen


La haemonchosis es una parasitosis que, en bovinos, a diferencia de los pequeñosrumiantes, raramente causa mortalidad. No obstante, cargas parasitarias que normalmente son subclínicas en terneros bien alimentados, pueden convertirse enclínicas causando la muerte, cuando la condición corporal es pobre. Este reportedescribe un caso de haemonchosis fatal en un ternero Brahman de 7 meses y elresultado del tratamiento con albendazol (10 mg/kg PO) en 17 terneros congéneres.La finca es de cría y levante de ganado de carne y está ubicada en el trópico alto, enel municipio de Yarumal, Antioquia, a una altura de 2.353 m.s.n.m y una temperaturapromedio de 14 ºC. En la producción no reportan plan sanitario adicional a la vacunacióncontra aftosa. El diagnóstico se sospechó inicialmente con base en observacionesclínico-patológicas de una anemia severa con hipoproteinemia de etiología noinflamatoria, y se confirmó en el examen post-mortem por la presencia de cientos denematodos adultos de Haemonchus spp. en el abomaso, y un recuento de 19.200 huevospor gramo (HPG) de heces de trichostrongylidos. El coprocultivo de heces mostróque el 70, 20, y 10% de dichos huevos pertenecían a especies de Haemonchus, Coperia,y otros géneros de nematodos, respectivamente. El tratamiento con albendazol fueeficaz reduciendo las cargas parasitarias en los 17 terneros tratados desde nivelesmoderados (200-700 HPG) y altos (>700 HPG), a niveles bajos (16-100 HPG). Se redujopor completo la infección en la mitad de los animales tratados y solo estuvo pordebajo del 90% en 3 animales. Debido a que la media del porcentaje de reducciónde huevos fue del 95% se deduce que no existe resistencia al albendazol. En conclusión,este caso revela que la haemonchosis en terneros debe incluirse dentro de losdiagnósticos diferenciales de mortalidad en el trópico colombiano y la realización denecropsias y exámenes coprológicos periódicos son imprescindibles para poder instaurarmedidas preventivas y de control de dichas parasitosis.

 

Haemonchosis in a Brahman calf in the high tropics ofthe Antioquian Northeast

Haemonchosis is a parasitic disease that in cattle, unlike small ruminants,rarely causes mortality. However, parasitic burdens that are usually subclinicalin well-fed calves may become clinical causing death when bodycondition is poor. This report describes a case of fatal haemonchosis in a7-month-old Brahman calf and the results of treatment with albendazole(10 mg/kg PO) in 17 cohort calves. The farm, dedicated to breeding andrearing beef calves, was located in the high tropics of the Andes, municipalityof Yarumal (Antioquia), at 2,353 meters of altitude with an annual meantemperature of 14 °C. Apart from vaccination for foot and mouth disease,the animals are not subjected to any other treatments. The diagnosis wasinitially suspected based on clinico-pathological observations of a severeanemia with hypoproteinemia of non-inflammatory etiology, and wasconfirmed in the postmortem examination by the presence of hundreds ofadult nematodes of Haemonchus spp. in the abomasum and a count of 19,200eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of trichostrongylids. Stool culture showed that70, 20, and 10% of these eggs belonged to Haemonchus, Coperia and othernematode genera, respectively. Albendazole treatment was effective in reducingparasitic loads in 17 treated calves from moderate (200-700 OPG)and high levels (> 700 EPG) to low levels (16-100 EPG). The infection wascompletely eliminated in half of the treated animals and was reduced tobelow 90% in only 3 animals. Because the mean egg reduction percentagewas 95%, it can be inferred that there is no resistance to albendazole. Inconclusion, this case reveals that haemonchosis should be included in thedifferential diagnosis of mortality in calves in the Colombian tropics, andthat necropsies and periodic coprological examinations are necessary toestablish preventive and control measures of this parasitosis.

Keywords: Albendazole, anemia, cattle, Haemonchus spp.

 

Hemoncose em uma bezerra raça Brahman no trópico alto donordeste da Antioquia

A hemoncose é uma doença parasitária que no gado, ao contrário dos pequenosruminantes, raramente causa mortalidade. No entanto, cargas parasitas que geralmentesão subclínicas em bezerros bem alimentados, podem tornar-se clinicamentecausadores de morte quando a condição corporal é ruim. Este relato descreve umcaso de hemoncose fatal em um bezerro Brahman de 7 meses de idade e os resultadosdo tratamento com albendazol (10 mg/kg PO) em 17 bezerros da coorte. Afazenda, dedicada à criação de bezerras, está localizada no trópico alto dos Andes,município de Yarumal (Antioquia), a 2.353 metros de altitude, com temperatura médiaanual de 14 ºC. Além da vacinação para a febre aftosa, os animais não são submetidosa outros tratamentos. O diagnóstico foi inicialmente suspeito com base em observaçõesclínico-patológicas de uma anemia grave com hipoproteinemia de etiologianão inflamatória, e foi confirmado no exame post-mortem pela presença de centenasde nematóides adultos de Haemonchus spp. no abomaso e uma contagem de 19.200ovos por grama de fezes (EPG) de tricostrongilídeos. A cultura de fezes mostrou que70, 20 e 10% desses ovos pertenciam a Haemonchus, Coperia e outros gêneros denematóides, respectivamente. O tratamento com albendazol foi eficaz na reduçãodas cargas parasitas em 17 bezerros tratados de níveis moderados (200-700 OPG)e altos (> 700 EPG) para níveis baixos (16-100 EPG). A infecção foi completamenteeliminada em metade dos animais tratados e foi reduzida para menos de 90% emapenas 3 animais. Como a porcentagem média de redução de ovos foi de 95%, pode-seinferir que não há resistência ao albendazol. Em conclusão, este caso revela que ahemoncose deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de mortalidade em bezerrosnos trópicos colombianos, e que necropsias e exames coprológicos periódicos sãonecessários para estabelecer medidas preventivas e de controle desta parasitose.

Palavras-chave: Albendazol, anemia, bovinos, Haemonchus spp.


Palabras clave


Albendazol, anemia, bovinos, Haemonchus spp.

Citas


Ali DN, Hennessy DR. The effect of feed intake on the rate of flow of digesta and the disposition and activity of oxfenbendazole in sheep. Int J Parasitol 1993; 23(4):477-484.

Benchaqui HA, McKellar QA. Interaction between fenbendazole and piperonyl butoxide: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics implications. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996; 48(7):753-759.

Berk Z, Laurenson YCSM, Forbes AB, Kyriazakis I. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2016; 6(3):258-271.

Canton C, Ceballos L, Fiel C, Moreno L, Domingo P, Bemat G, et al. Resistant nematodes in cattle: pharmaco-therapeutic assessment of the ivermectin-ricobendazole combination. Vet Parasitol 2017; 234:40-48.

Chaparro JJ, Villar D, Zapata JD, Lopez S, Howell SB, Lopez A, et al. Multi-drug resistant Haemonchus contortus in a sheep flock in Antioquia, Colombia. Vet Parasitol 2017; 10:29-34.

Chaparro JJ, Ramírez NF, Villar D, Fernandez JA, Londoño J, Arbeláez C, et al. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites, liver flukes and lungworm in feces from dairy cattle in the high tropics of Antioquia, Colombia. Parasite Epidemiol Control 2016; 1(2): 124-130.

Coles GC, Jackson F, Pomroy WE Prichard RK, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Silvestre A, et al. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 2006; 136:167-185.

Fávero FC, Buzzulini C, Cruz BC, Felippelli G, Maciel WG, Salatta B, et al. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei and Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of parasitological parameters. Vet Parasitol 2016a; 217:25-28.

Fávero FC, Buzzulini C, Cruz BC, Felippelli G, Maciel WG, Salatta B, et al. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological characteristics of abomasums. Vet Parasitol 2016b; 170:125-134.

Gasbarre LC, Smith LL, Lichtenfels JR, Pilitt PA.The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US. Vet Parasitol 2009; 166:281-285.

Gennari SM, Abdalla AL, Vitti DM, Meirelles CF, Lopes RS, Bressan MC. Haemonchus placei in calves: effects of dietary protein and multiple experimental infection on worm establishment and pathogenesis. Vet Parasitol 1995; 59:119-126.

George MM, Paras KL; Howell SB, Kaplan RM. Utilization of composite fecal samples for detection of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Vet Parasitol 2017; 240:24-29.

Guzmán M, Steffan P, Riva E, Bernat G, Scarcella S, Murno G, et al. Experimental infections in cattle and sheep with haemonchus contortus resistant or susceptible to benzimidazole treatments. J Vet Med Res 2017; 4(3):1076.

Hennessy D, Steel J.The influence of ruminal absorption on pharmacokinetic behavior of benzimidazole anthelmintics. Proc. Annu. Sci. Meeting Austr. Soc. Parasitol., Western Australia, Abstract. 1990; 22.

Hogg R, Whitaker K, Collins R, Holmes P, Mitchell S, Anscombe J, et al. Haemonchosis in large ruminants in the UK. Vet Rec 2010; 166(12):373-374.

Kotze AC, Prichard RK. Anthelmintic Resistance in Haemonchus contortus: History, Mechanisms and Diagnosis. Adv Parasitol 2016; 93:397-428.

Kumbhakar NK, Sanyal PK, Rawte D, Kumar D. Efficacy of pharmacokinetic interactions between piperonyl butoxide and albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats. J Helminthol 2016; 90(5):624-629.

Lanusse CE, Prichard RK. Relationship between pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy of ruminant anthelmintics. Vet Parasitol 1993; 49:123-158.

O'Shaughnessy J, Earley B, Mee JF, Doherty ML, Crosson P, Barrett D, et al. Nematode control in spring-born suckler beef calves using targeted selective anthelmintic treatments. Vet Parasitol 2014; 205(1-2):150-157.

Pfukenyi DM, Mukaratirwa S, Willingham AL, Monrad J. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidian infections in cattle in the Highveld and Lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2007; 74:129-142.

Steel JW, Hennessy DR. Influence of ruminal bypass on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of benzimidazole antihelmintics in sheep. Int J Parasitol 1999; 29:305-314.

Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL. Veterinary Parasitology. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2015.

Thumbi SM, Bronsvoort BM, Poole EJ, Kiara H, Toye PG, Mbole-Kariuki MN, et al. Parasite con-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(2) e76324.

Vadlejch J, Petrtyl M, Zaichenko I, Cadkova Z, Jankovska I, Langrova I, et al. Which McMaster egg counting techniques is the most reliable? Parasitol Res 2011; 109, 1387–1394.

Van Houter MFJ, Sykes AR. Implications of nutrition for the ability of ruminants to withstand gastrointestinal nematode infections. Int J Parasitol 1996; 26(11)1151-1168.

Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Treatment vs non-treatment of helminth infections in cattle: defining the threshold. Vet Parasitol 2001; 98:195-214.


Texto completo: PDF

Licencia de Creative Commons

Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.