Incidencia y prevalencia de cetosis clínica y subclínica en ganado en pastoreo en el altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia

Adriana Marcela Garzón Audor, Olimpo Juan Oliver Espinosa

Resumen


La cetosis es una enfermedad metabólica común en los hatos lecheros,que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a través de la disminución de la producciónláctea y la eficiencia reproductiva y mayor riesgo de descarte temprano.En el Altiplano Cundiboyacense, la incidencia de la enfermedad esdesconocida. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la incidencia y la prevalenciade la cetosis subclínica (CSC) y clínica (CC) durante las primerasseis semanas postparto en vacas dedicadas a la producción láctea. Una muestra por conveniencia de 150 vacas de 10 hatos lecheros ubicados en el altiplanocundiboyacense, fueron seguidas semanalmente, para determinar la concentraciónde βHB con un medidor electroquímico portátil. Las lactancias, días en leche, condicióncorporal, duración del preparto y periodo seco, raza, producción láctea y enfermedadespostparto de cada animal fueron registradas. Las prácticas de manejo de cada fincafueron determinadas con una encuesta. Se calculó la incidencia semanal y acumuladaademás de la prevalencia de la CC y CSC. La incidencia acumulada de CC y CSCfue de 3,3% y 25,3%, respectivamente. El pico de incidencia de CSC ocurrió en lasemana 4 postparto y en la semana 2, para CC. La prevalencia de CSC fue del 42,6%y 6%, para la CC. La enfermedad fue más prevalente en las vacas de ≥3 lactancias.Las enfermedades más importantes durante el postparto fueron la retención de placentay metritis. La CSC fue altamente incidente durante las primeras seis semanasposparto, más relevante durante la cuarta semana posparto en vacas multíparas.

 

Incidence and prevalence of clinical and subclinicalketosis in grazing dairy cattle in the CundiboyacencianAndean plateau, Colombia

Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder in dairy cattle farms that causeseconomic losses through reduced milk yield, reproductive performance andincreased risk of early culling. In the Cundiboyacencian Andean plateau, theincidence of the condition is unknown. The main objective of the study wasto determine the incidence and the prevalence of subclinical (SCK) and clinicalketosis (CK) in grazing dairy cows in Colombia within the first six weeks oflactation. A purposive sample of 150 lactating dairy cows from 10 commercialdairy farms in the Cundi-Boyacencian Andean plateau were tested weeklyusing point of care device (POCD) for β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) during the first6 weeks of lactation. Parity, days in milk (DIM), body condition score (BCS),prepartum and dry period length (DP), breed, milk yield (MY) and peripartumdiseases were recorded for each cow and management practices were determinedusing a survey for each farm. Weekly incidence, cumulative incidenceand prevalence were calculated. The cumulative incidence of SCK was25.33% and 3.33% for CK. The peak incidence was 8% at week 4 postpartumfor SCK and 2.6% at week 2 for CK. The overall prevalence of SCK was 42.6%and CK prevalence was 6%. The peak prevalence of SCK and CK was 10.6%at week 4 and 2.6% at week 2 postpartum, respectively. The most frequentperiparturient diseases were retained placenta and metritis. SCK was a highincident disease within the first 6 weeks of lactation, with a peak incidenceat week 4 postpartum in multiparous cows.

Keywords: β-Hydroxybutyrate, dairy cattle, epidemiology, hyperketonemia.

 

Incidência e prevalência de cetose clínica e subclínica empastoreo no altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colômbia

A cetose é uma doença metabólica comum em rebanhos leiteiros, o qual gera perdaseconômicas através da redução da produção de leite e eficiência reprodutiva o aumentodo risco de descarte precoce. No Altiplano Cundiboyacense, a incidência édesconhecida. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a incidência e prevalência de cetosesubclínica e clínica durante as primeiras seis semanas pós-parto em vacasdedicadas à produção leiteira. 150 vacas de 10 rebanhos localizados no AltiplanoCundiboyacense foram testadas semanalmente para determinar a concentração deβHB com um medidor digital portátil. Paridade, dias em leite, condição corporal, períodopré-parto e período seco, raça, produção de leite e doenças pós-parto de cadaanimal foram registrados. As práticas de manejo de cada fazenda foram determinadascom uma pesquisa. A incidência semanal, incidência cumulativa e a prevalênciaforam calculados de CC e CSC. A incidência cumulativa de CC e CSC foi de 3,3% e25,3%, respectivamente. O pico de incidência de CSC ocorreu na 4ª semana pós--parto e na 2ª semana, para CC. A prevalência da CSC foi de 42,6% e 6% para o CC.A doença foi mais prevalente em vacas ≥3 lactações. As doenças mais importantesdurante o pós-parto foram a retenção de placenta e metrite. A CSC foi altamenteincidente durante as primeiras seis semanas pós-parto, mais relevante durante aquarta semana pós-parto em vacas multíparas.

Palavras chave: β-hidroxibutirato, epidemiologia, hipercetonemia, vacas leiteiras.

 


Palabras clave


β-Hidroxibutirato, epidemiología, hipercetonemia, vacas lecheras.

Citas


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