Presencia de Salmonella spp. en tortugas de río en cautiverio y en libertad en Urabá, Colombia

Melissa Penagos Gaviria, Camila Trujillo Garcés, Janeth Pérez-García, Miryan Margot Sánchez-Jiménez, Nora Cardona-Castro

Resumen


La salmonelosis es una enfermedad infecciosa de alta prevalencia a nivelmundial en la cual las tortugas han sido reconocidas como portadores crónicos.Diferentes estudios han reportado la presencia de Salmonella spp. entortugas de río en diferentes países, sin embargo, ha sido poco reportada enindividuos en libertad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presenciade Salmonella spp. en tortugas de río en cautiverio (n= 55) y en libertad(n= 50) en el Urabá antioqueño (Colombia) entre 2015-2016. Se incluyeronlas especies Trachemys venusta, Rhinoclemmys melanosterna y Kinosternonleucostomum. Se tomó la muestra de materia fecal por hisopado cloacal, secultivó y de las colonias aisladas se realizó extracción de ADN y reacciónen cadena de polimerasa (PCR). De la población muestreada (n=105) se encontraron dos individuos positivos a Salmonella spp., ambos en cautiverio, machos,adultos y pertenecientes a la especie R. melanosterna. Los resultados obtenidos noexcluyen la posibilidad de infección debido a la intermitencia en la excreción de la bacteriaen heces. Esta investigación aporta evidencia a la presencia de la bacteria en lastortugas de la región de estudio y la necesidad de implementar medidas preventivasque disminuyan el contacto con estas especies, y por lo tanto la probabilidad de transmisiónde salmonelosis no tifoidea en la población humana de la región.

 

Presence of Salmonella spp in captivity and wild riverturtles in Urabá, Colombia

Salmonellosis is a high prevalence infectious diseases worldwide and turtleshave been recognized as chronic carriers. Studies have reported thepresence of Salmonella spp in river turtles in different countries; however,studies in wild individuals are less common. The objective of this studywas to identify the presence of Salmonella spp in wild (n=50) and in captivity(n=55) river turtles in Uraba Antioqueño (Colombia) between 2015-2016.Trachemys venusta, Rhinoclemmys melanosterna, and Kinosternon leucostomumwere included. Feces samples were taken by cloaca swab, cultureswere performed, and DNA extraction and PCR were made from the coloniesisolated. From total population(n=105) two male, adults in captivity werepositive, the specie was R. melanosterna. The results obtained do not excludeinfection due to the intermittence in the excretion of the bacteria infeces. This research provides evidence of the presence of the bacteria inturtles from the region and highlights the requirement to implement preventiveactivities to reduce contact with these species, and decrease theprobability of transmission of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in human populationaround the region.

Keywords: Colombia, river turtles, Salmonella spp, Urabá.

 

Presença de Salmonella spp. em tartarugas de rio em cativeiro eem liberdade em Urabá, Colômbia

Salmonelose é uma doença de alta prevalência mundial. As tartarugas são reconhecidascomo portadoras crônicas. Em diferentes países tem sido relatado a presença deSalmonella spp. em tartarugas de rios embora, poucos são os estudos em indivíduosselvagens. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar na região do Urabá Antioqueño (Colombia)nos anos 2015 e 2016 a presença de Salmonella spp. em tartarugas selvagens (n = 50)e em cativeiro (n = 55). Foram incluídas tartarugas das espécies Trachemys venusta,Rhinoclemmys melanosterna e Kinosternon leucostomum. Foi coletada por esfregaçocloacal e para cultura uma amostra de fezes. A partir das colônias isoladas foi realizadaextração de DNA para testes moleculares (PCR). Da população total (n = 105)foram positivos do grupo de cativeiro dois machos adultos da espécie R. melanosterna.Devido à intermitência na excreção das bactérias nas fezes os resultados obtidos nãoexcluem a infecção. Esta pesquisa fornece evidências da presença da bactéria emtartarugas da região do Urabá e destaca a necessidade de implementar atividadespreventivas para reduzir o contato com essas espécies selvagens e diminuir a probabilidadede transmissão zoonótica de salmonelose não tifoidal na população humanada região.

Palavras-chave: Colombia, Salmonella spp, tartarugas de rios, Urabá.

 


Palabras clave


Colombia, Salmonella spp., tortugas de río, Urabá.

Citas


Bosch S, Tauxe RV, Behravesh CB. Turtle-Associated Salmonellosis, United States, 2006–2014. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 22(7): 1149-1155.

Porwollik S. Salmonella: From Genome to Function. 1ra ed. Norfolk, UK : Caister Academic Press; 2011.

Harris JR, Neil KP, Behravesh CB, Sotir MJ, Angulo FJ. Recent multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections acquired from turtles: a continuing public health challenge. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50(4): 554–559.

Simón-Vivan P, Sanz-Colomo M, Horna-Campos O, Ros-Samsó M. Transmisión de Salmonella entre tortugas y niños: experiencia de la enfermería de salud pública a propósito de un caso. Enfermería Clínica 2012; 22(1): 51–57.

Mermin J, Hutwagner L, Vugia D, Shallow S, Daily P, et al. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella Infection: a population‐based, case‐Control Study. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38(Suppl.3): S253–S261.

Stam F, Römkens TEH, Hekker TAM, Smulders YM. Turtle-Associated Human Salmonellosis. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37(11): 167–169.

Meyer Sauteur PM, Relly C, Hug M, Wittenbrink MM, Berger C. Risk factors for invasive reptile-associated salmonellosis in children. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2013; 13(6): 419–421.

Marin C, Ingresa-Capaccioni S, González-Bodi S, Marco-Jiménez F, Vega S. Free-Living Turtles Are a Reservoir for Salmonella but Not for Campylobacter. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(8).

Dutton CS, Revan F, Wang C, Xu C, Norton TM, Stewart KM, et al. Salmonella enterica prevalence in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in St. Kitts, West Indies. J Zoo Wildl Med 2013; 44(3): 765–768.

Giannella RA. Salmonella. En: Baron S. Medical Microbiology. 4ta ed. Galveston, Texas: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996; [acceso: 20 de agosto de 2016]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8435/

Lecis R, Paglietti B, Rubino S, Are BM, Muzzeddu M, et al. Detection and characterization of Mycoplasma spp. and Salmonella spp. in free-living European tortoises (Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca, and Testudo marginata). J Wildl Dis 2011; 47(3): 717–724.

Hernández E, Rodriguez JL, Herrera-León S, García I, De Castro V, Muniozguren N. Salmonella Paratyphi B var Java infections associated with exposure to turtles in Bizkaia, Spain, September 2010 to October 2011. Eurosurveillance 2012; 17(25).

Magnino S, Colin P, Dei-Cas E, Madsen M, McLauchlin J, et al. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 134(3):163–175.

Sánchez-Jiménez MM, Rincón-Ruiz PA, Duque S, Giraldo MA, et al. Salmonella enterica in semi-aquatic turtles in Colombia. J Infect Dev Ctries 2011; 5(5): 361-364.

De Jong B, Andersson Y, Ekdahl K. Effect of Regulation and Education on Reptile associated Salmonellosis. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11(3): 398–403.

Gioia Di Chiacchio R, Penido Júnior GN, De Souza CAI, Prioste FES, Prado MS, et al. Enterobacterial colonization in captive red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). J Zoo Wildl Med 2014; 45(4): 919–921.

Pedersen K, Lassen-Nielsen A-M, Nordentoft S, Hammer AS. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles. Zoonoses Public Health 2009; 56(5): 238–242.

Gaertner JP, Hahn D, Rose FL, Forstner MRJ. Detection of salmonellae in different turtle species within a headwater spring ecosystem. J Wildl Dis 2008; 44(2): 519–526.

Saelinger CA, Lewbart GA, Christian LS, Lemons CL. Prevalence of Salmonella spp in cloacal, fecal, and gastrointestinal mucosal samples from wild North American turtles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 229(2): 266–268.

Nuestro Municipio Carepa; [acceso: 13 de septiembre de 2016]. URL: http://www.carepa-antioquia.gov.co/informacion_general.shtml

Nakadai A, Kuroki T, Kato Y, Suzuki R, Yamai S, et al. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet reptiles in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 2005; 67(1): 97–101.

Percipalle M, Giardina G, Lipari L, Piraino C, Macrì D, Ferrantelli V. Salmonella infection in illegally imported spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca). Zoonoses Public Health 2011; 58(4): 262–269.

Jang YH, Lee SJ, Lim JG, Lee HS, Kim TJ, et al. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea. J Vet Sci 2008; 9(2): 177-181.

Chen CY, Chen WC, Chin SC, Lai YH, Tung KC, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolates from reptiles in Taiwan. J Vet Diagn Invest 2010; 22(1): 44-50.

Pachón D, Pulido A, Moreno C. Aislamiento y serotipificación de Salmonella sp. en estanques con Crocodylus intermedius y testudines cautivos en Villavicencio-Colombia. Rev.MVZ Córdoba 2011; 16(2): 2564-2575.


Texto completo: PDF

Licencia de Creative Commons

Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.