Efecto de la premedicación de Fentanilo-acepromacina y Fentanilo-xilacina sobre la presentación de vómito posoperatorio en perros

Paula María Bermúdez, José Alfredo Rivera

Resumen


La inclusión de opioides durante la preanestesia y anestesia, potencialmentepuede incrementar la presentación de vómito y náuseas posoperatorias, acrecentandoel riesgo de presentación de sangrado, dehiscencias, neumonía poraspiración o esofagitis. En éste estudio se evaluó la presentación de vómito,salivación excesiva y anorexia durante 24 horas del periodo posanestésico en100 perros ASA I y II. El grupo A (n: 40) fue premedicado con una mezcla deacepromacina a 0.08 mg/kg i.v. y fentanilo a 5 μg/kg i.v. y el grupo X (n: 60) conxilacina a 0.3 mg/kg i.v. más fentanilo a 5 μg/kg i.v. La inducción anestésicapara ambos grupos se realizó con propofol a 4 mg/kg y el mantenimientocon isoflurano a 1,5-3%. La presentación general de vómito post-anestesiafue del 12%. Entre ambos grupos no se encontraron diferencias significativasen la incidencia de vómito a las 2 (p= 0,837), a las 6 (p= 0,439) y a las 24 horas (p= 0,639). No hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos para la presentación de salivaciónexcesiva o anorexia. Se encontró una asociación entre vómito post-anestésicoy cirugía del aparato reproductivo en hembras (p= 0,02). Se concluye que un único bolode fentanilo a 5 μg/kg con acepromacina a 0,08 mg/kg o xilacina 0,3 mg/kg durante lapremedicación anestésica, no incrementa la presentación de vómito en las primeras 24horas del postquirúrgico en perros.

 

Effect of premedication with fentanyl-acepromazine andfentanyl-xylazine over postsurgical vomiting in dogs

Opioid inclusion in pre-anesthesia and anesthesia may increase postperativevomiting and nausea, increasing the risk of bleeding, dehiscence, aspirationpneumonia or esophagitis. Therefore, the purpose of this study wasto monitor vomiting, excessive salivation and anorexia during 24 hours ofthe post-surgical period on 100 dogs ASA I and II. Group A (n: 40) waspre-medicated with acepromazine at 0.08 mg/kg with fentanyl at 5 μg/kgi.v; group X (n: 60) with xylazine at 0.3 mg/kg i.v. with fentanyl at 5 μg/kg i.v.Anesthesia induction was made with propofol at 4 mg/kg and maintainedwith isofluorane at 1.5-3% for both groups. The overall vomiting producedwas 12% and there were no significant differences in vomiting manifestationat 2 (p=0.837), 6 (p=0.439) and 24 hours (p= 0.639) between the groups.In the same way, there were no major differences neither for excessivesalivation nor anorexia. There was a significant association between postanesthesiavomiting and reproductive surgery in female dogs (p=0.02).As a conclusion, a single bolus of fentanyl at 5 μg/kg with acepromazineat 0.08 mg/kg or xylazine 0.3 mg/kg in pre-anesthesia does not increasepost-surgery vomiting in dogs in the first 24 hours.

Keywords: Acepromazine, canine, fentanyl, xylazine, vomit.

 

Efeito da pré-medicação com fentanil-acepromazina e fentanilxilazinasobre o vômito pós-cirúrgico em cães

A inclusão de opioides durante a pré-anestesia e anestesia, potencialmente podemincrementar a apresentação de vomito e náuseas pós-operatórias, acrescentando orisco de apresentação de sangrado, deiscências, pneumonia por aspiração e esofagites.Neste estudo se avalio a apresentação de vomito, salivação excessiva e anorexiadurante 24 horas do período pós-anestésico em 100 cães ASA I e II. O grupo A(n: 40) foi medicado com uma mistura de acepromazina 0.08 mg/kg IV e fentanilo 5μg/kg IV e no grupo X (n: 60), xilacina 0.3 mg/kg IV e fentanilo 5 μg/kg IV. A induçãoanestésica para ambos grupos se realizou com propofol 4 mg/kg e manutenção comisoflurano 1,5-3%. A apresentação geral de vomito pós-anestésico foi do 12%. Entreambos grupos não se encontraram diferencias significativas na incidência de vomitonas 2 (p= 0,837), 6 (p= 0,439) e 24 horas (p= 0,639). Não teve diferenças significativasentre grupos na apresentação de salivação excessiva ou anorexia. Se achou umaassociação entre vomito pós-anestésico e cirurgia do trato reprodutivo em fêmeas(p= 0,02). Como conclusão uma única doses de fentanilo 5 μg/kg com acepromacina0,08 mg/kg ou xilacina 0,3 mg/kg durante a pré-medicação anestésica, não incrementaa apresentação de vomito nas primeiras 24 horas do pós-cirúrgico em cães.

Palavras-chave: Acepromazina, canina, fentanil, vômito, xilazina.


Palabras clave


Acepromacina, canino, fentanilo, vómito, xilacina.

Citas


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