Epidemiología de la cetosis en bovinos: una revisión

Adriana Marcela Garzón Audor, Olimpo Juan Oliver Espinosa

Resumen


La cetosis es una enfermedad metabólica asociada al balance energéticonegativo que sufren las vacas dedicadas a la producción láctea al inicio dela lactancia y se caracteriza por un aumento en la concentración de cuerposcetónicos circulantes. La epidemiologia de la enfermedad ha sido ampliamentedescrita en diversos países alrededor del mundo, contando con unavariación en la prevalencia entre el 4% hasta el 52% y en la incidencia entre4,9% hasta 72%, con pico de incidencia a la cuarta semana posparto en lasvacas entre segunda y séptima lactancia. Esta entidad tiene una repercusiónimportante sobre la rentabilidad de los hatos lecheros, por los costos asociadosa enfermedades concomitantes, disminución de la producción láctea,bajo desempeño reproductivo y descartes tempranos. Para disminuir la incidenciade la enfermedad en los hatos, es necesario realizar el diagnósticoy el tratamiento oportuno, además de reconocer los factores de riesgoasociados a la misma, el manejo adecuado de la dieta durante el periodo detransición y el tratamiento de las enfermedades concomitantes, entre otros.

 

Epidemiology of bovine ketosis: a review

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs during early-lactation in dairycattle, it is related to negative energy balance, characterized by increasedlevels of circulating ketones bodies. The epidemiology of the disease hasbeen widely described in several countries around the world, with a prevalenceranging from 4% to 52% and an incidence between 4.9% and 72%,with a peak incidence during the fourth week postpartum in cows betweenthe second and seventh lactation. This condition has an important impacton dairy farms profitability due to increased risk of concomitant diseases,decreased milk yield, poor reproductive performance and early culling. Toreduce the disease incidence, it is necessary to perform an early diagnosisand treatment, in addition to recognizing the associated risk factors, theproper nutritional management during the transition period and treatmentof periparturient diseases, among others.

Keywords: β-Hydroxybutyrate, dairy cattle, incidence, ketosis, prevalence.

 

Epidemiologia da cetose em bovinos: uma revisão

A cetose é uma doença metabólica associada ao balanço energético negativosofrido por vacas dedicadas à produção de leite no início da lactação e é caracterizada por um aumento na concentração de corpos cetônicos circulantes. Aepidemiologia da doença tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países do mundo,com variação de prevalência entre 4% a 52% e em incidência entre 4,9% e 72%, compico de incidência ao quarta semana pós-parto em vacas entre a segunda e a sétimalactação. Esta entidade tem um impacto significativo na rentabilidade dos rebanhosleiteiros, os custos associados a doenças concomitantes, diminuição da produção deleite, baixo desempenho reprodutivo e descartes precoces. Para reduzir a incidênciada doença em rebanhos, é necessário para fazer o diagnóstico e tratamento imediato,além de reconhecer os fatores de risco associados, gestão de dieta adequada duranteo período de transição e o tratamento de doenças concomitantes, entre outros.

Palavras-chave: β-Hidroxibutirato, bovino, cetose, incidência, prevalência.


Palabras clave


β-Hidroxibutirato, bovinos, cetosis, incidencia, prevalencia.

Citas


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