Prevalencia de parásitos gastrointestinales en equinos y factores de riesgo asociados en varias zonas de Antioquia, Colombia

Jenny J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez, Nicolás F. Ramírez-Vásquez, Diego Piedrahita, Alejandro Strauch, Alfredo Sánchez, Julio Tobón, Martha Olivera-Angel, Diego Ortiz-Ortega, David Villar-Argaiz

Resumen


Existen pocos reportes de la prevalencia de parásitos gastrointestinalesen equinos en Colombia. En este estudio se muestrearon 946 caballos deun total de 204 predios en los municipios de Rionegro y los que comprendenel Valle de Aburrá departamento de Antioquia. La materia fecal fue tomada directamente del recto y procesada por las técnicas de McMaster, Baermanny Graham. La prevalencia de parásitos a nivel de predios fue del 56,3% para Strongylidae,10,7% para Strongyloides spp, 2,8% para Oxyuridae y 0,3% para Dictyocaulus spp. Desdeel punto de vista práctico, los más patogénicos y de mayor problema de resistenciason los Cyathostomidos, que se incluyen dentro de los Strongylidae y cuya prevalenciafue superior al 50%. El OR de presentar Strongylidae es 49% menor en equinosque participan en ferias en comparación con los que no lo hacen. El OR de presentarStrongylidae es 56% menor en equinos que usan pesebrera en comparación con losque no la usan. Por su parte, el OR de ser positivo a Oxyuris equi es 88% menor enanimales que salen a ferias en comparación con los que no salen a feria y el OR deser positivo a Oxyuris equi es 3,66 veces mayor en equinos con condición corporal ≤2en comparación con equinos de condición corporal ≥3. Con base en esta informaciónes importante iniciar estudios de resistencia a antihelmínticos y evaluar la relaciónentre la carga parasitaria y las posibles afecciones clínicas para así determinar elimpacto real de estas parasitosis en los equinos de estas regiones.

 

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in equines andassociated risk factors in several areas of Antioquia,Colombia

There are few reports on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites inequines in Colombia. In this study, 946 horses were sampled from a totalof 204 farms in the municipalities of Rionegro and those that comprisethe Valle de Aburrá, in the department of Antioquia. Fecal samples weretaken directly from the rectum and processed by the McMaster, Baermannand Graham techniques. The prevalence of parasites at the farm level was56.3% for Strongylidae, 10.7% for Strongyloides spp, 2.8% for Oxyuridae and0.3% for Dictyocaulus spp. From a practical point of view, the most pathogenicparasites and of greatest resistance concern were the Cyathostomids,which are included within the Strongylidae and whose prevalence was greaterthan 50%. The OR of presenting Strongylidae was 49% lower in equinesthat participated in fairs compared to those that did not. The OR of presentingStrongylidae was 56% lower in equines that use stables than those notbeing stalled. Also, the OR of being positive to Oxyuris equi was 88% lowerin animals that participate in fairs compared to those that did not, and was3.66 times higher in equines with body condition ≤ 2 in comparison withthose of body condition ≥3. Based on this information, it is important toinitiate studies that evaluate the state of antihelminthic resistance and therelationship between parasitic load and clinical condition in order to determinethe real impact of these parasites on the equines of these regions.

Keywords: Colombia, equines, parasites, prevalence.

 

Prevalência de parasitos gastrointestinais em equinos e fatoresde risco associados em várias zonas de Antióquia, Colômbia

Existem poucos reportes da prevalência de parasitos gastrointestinais em equinos naColômbia. Nessa pesquisa foram amostrados 946 cavalos de um total de 204 fazendasnos municípios de Rionegro e dos que formam o Vale de Aburrá, no departamentode Antióquia. A matéria fecal foi tirada diretamente do reto e processada pelas técnicasde McMaster, Baermann e Graham. A prevalência de parasitos das fazendasfoi de 56.3% para Strongylidae, 10,7% para Strongyloides spp, 2,8% para Oxyuridae y0.3% para Dictyocaulus spp. Desde o ponto de vista prático, os mais patogênicos e demaior problema de resistência são os Cyathostomidos, que estão incluídos dentro dosStronglylidae e cuja prevalência foi superior ao 50%. O OR de apresentar Strongylidaeé 49% menor nos equinos que participam em férias comparado com os que não. O ORde apresentar Strongylidae é 56% menor nos equinos que usam manjedoura comparadocom os que não a usam. Por outro lado, o OR de ser positivo a Oxyuris equi é88% menor em animais que vão a férias comparado com os que não vão e o OR deser positivo a Oxyuris equi é 3.66 vezes maior nos equinos com condição corporal ≤2comparado com os equinos de condição corporal ≥3. Com base nesta informação, seconclui que é importante iniciar estudos de resistência a anti-helmínticos e avaliar arelação entre a carga parasitária e as possíveis afecções clínicas para assim determinaro impacto real destas parasitoses nos equinos destas regiões.

Palavras-chave: Colombia, eqüinos, parasitas, prevalência.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21615/cesmvz.13.1.1


Palabras clave


Colombia, equinos, parásitos, prevalencia

Citas


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