Balance de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio en vacas Holstein pastando praderas de kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el norte de Antioquia

Ligia Johana Jaimes Cruz, Héctor Jairo Correa Cardona

Resumen


Con la finalidad de estimar el balance de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K) en vacas Holstein del norte de Antioquia en los tres tercios de la lactancia y en dos épocas del año (alta y baja precipitación) pastando praderas de kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus), se seleccionaron nueve vacas (tres de cada tercio) de cinco hatos a las que se les estimó el consumo de forraje, de los suplementos alimenticios y de sal mineralizada y se les estimó la excreción de heces, orina y la secreción láctea durante los últimos tres días de los 14 días que duraba el periodo experimental en cada época. Se tomaron muestras de los alimentos, heces, orina y leche en los que se determinó el contenido de N, P y K y se calculó la digestibilidad aparente, el balance y la eficiencia en el uso de cada nutriente en la producción de leche. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar en un arreglo factorial 3 x 2. Con el avance de la lactancia  se redujo la eficiencia en el uso del N, P y K (p<0,001) mientras que la del N y del P fue menor en el periodo seco (p<0,001) debido al incremento en el consumo de los suplementos alimenticios (p<0,01) no obstante que ni la disponibilidad (p>0,89) ni el consumo de la pradera (p>0,24) se vieran afectados. Se concluye que la época del año puede afectar el balance y eficiencia en el uso de los nutrientes en vacas lactantes debido principalmente a pautas de manejo en el suplemento alimenticio.

 

Balance de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio en vacas Holstein pastando praderas de kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el norte de Antioquia

To aim to estimate the balance of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in Holstein cows in northern Antioquia in the three thirds of lactation and in two seasons (high and low precipitation) grazing kikuyo grass (Cenchrus clandestinus), nine cows (three by lactation third) of five herds to which they estimated forage intake, consumption of food supplements and mineralized salt, were selected and were estimated excretion of feces, urine and milk secretion during last three days of an experimental period of 14 days in every season. Food samples, feces, urine and milk were taken in which the content of N, P and K were determined and digestibility, balance and efficiency of each nutrient in milk production were calculated. Data were analyzed under a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3x2. With the advancement of lactation the efficiency of N, P and K decreased (p<0.001) while that of N and P was lower in the dry period (p<0.001), due to increased intake of dietary supplements (p<0.01) without the availability (p>0.89) nor forage intake (p>0.24) were affected by reduced precipitation. It was conclude that the season can affect the balance and efficiency of nutrients in lactating cows mainly because management guidelines in the food supplement.

Keywords: dry season, nutritional efficiency, rainy season.

 

Balanço de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em vacas holandesas pastejando capim-quicuio (Cenchrus clandestinus) no Norte de Antioquia

 

Com a finalidade de estimar o balanço de nitrogênio (N), fósforo (P) e potássio (K) em vacas holandesas do norte de Antioquia no terceiro tercio de lactação e em dois épocas do ano (alta e baixa precipitação) pastejando capim-quicuio (Cenchrus clandestinus), selecionaram-se nove vacas (três de cada tercio) de cinco rebanhos nas quais estimou-se o consumo de forragem, dos suplementos alimentícios e de sal mineralizada e além, estimou-se a excreção de fezes, urina e a secreção láctea durante os últimos três dias dos 14 que durava o período experimental em cada época. Tomaram-se amostras dos alimentos, fezes, urina e leite nos que se determinaram o conteúdo de N, P, e K e calcularam-se a digestibilidade aparente, o balanço e a eficiência no uso de cada nutrimento na produção de leite. Os dados analisaram-se sob um desenho completamente ao acaso num desenho fatorial 3 X 2. Com o avanço da lactação se reduz a eficiência no uso de N, P e K (p<0,001) enquanto que a de N e P foram menores no período seco (p<0,001) devido ao incremento no consumo dos suplementos alimentícios (p<0,01), não obstante que, nem a disponibilidade (p>0,89), nem o consumo do capim (p>0,24), foram afetados. Conclui-se que a época do ano pode afetar o balanço e a eficiência no uso dos nutrientes para vacas em lactação devido principalmente as pautas de manejo no suplemento alimentício.

Palavras-chave: eficiência nutricional, períodos chuvosos, período seco.

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21615/cesmvz.11.2.2


Palabras clave


eficiencia nutricional, periodo lluvioso, periodo seco

Citas


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