Ruptura del ligamento cruzado craneal en perros

Christof Fischer Wiethuchter

Resumen


La ruptura del ligamento cruzado craneal (LCCr) es una de las causas más comunes de claudicación en perros, produciendo inestabilidad articular lo que conlleva en consecuencia a una degeneración de la rodilla afectada. En la actualidad se piensa que en la mayoría de los pacientes afectados se produce una degeneración del LCCr progresiva, que con el tiempo y traumas leves continuados pueden llegar a una ruptura total del ligamento. El diagnóstico se basa principalmente en el examen ortopédico y la toma de radiografías de la rodilla, siendo la prueba de cajón positiva importante para detectar la ruptura total del LCCr, por otro lado, las lesiones parciales del LCCr son de difícil diagnóstico, por lo que en los últimos años se ha ido incrementado el uso de la artroscopía y la resonancia magnética como métodos diagnósticos en medicina veterinaria. En las últimas décadas se han descrito un gran número de tratamientos quirúrgicos con el fin de estabilizar nuevamente la rodilla afectada. Dichos tratamientos pueden  dividirse en métodos intraarticulares, métodos extraarticulares y osteotomías de la tibia proximal. A pesar del gran desarrollo científico realizado en los últimos años respecto a dicha patología, no existe un tratamiento que evite el desarrollo de patologías secundarias a la ruptura del LCCr, como artrosis articular y frecuentemente lesiones en los meniscos. El objetivo del presente artículo, es proveer una breve revisión actual de la literatura relacionada a la ruptura del ligamento cruzado craneal en perros.

 

Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs

Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (LCCr) is one of the most common causes of lameness in dogs. It generates joint instability, leading to a degeneration of the affected knee. It is thought that most LCCr rupture cases are due to progressive degeneration along with mild traumas. The diagnosis is primarily based on orthopedic examination and X-rays of the knee; a positive drawer test is important to detect total rupture of LCCr. On the other hand, partial LCCr injuries are difficult to diagnose, so arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging have been increasingly used as diagnostic methods in recent years. Many surgical procedures have been described to stabilize the affected knee in the last decades. Such treatments can be divided into intra-articular procedures, extra-articular methods and proximal tibial osteotomies. Despite important scientific developments in recent years regarding this disease there is no treatment to prevent secondary diseases following LCCr rupture, such as osteo-arthrosis and meniscus injuries. The aim of this paper is to provide a


Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães

A ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (LCCr) é uma das causas mais comuns de claudicação nos cães, produzindo uma instabilidade articular que leva em consequência a uma degeneração do joelho afetado. Na atualidade se acha que nos pacientes afetados se produz uma degeneração do LCCr progressiva, que com o tempo e traumas leves continuados pode se chegar a desenvolver em uma ruptura total do ligamento. O diagnóstico baseia-se principalmente no exame ortopédico e a toma de radiografias do joelho, sendo os testes mais importantes para detectar a ruptura total do LCCr, de outro lado, as lesões parciais do LCCr são de difícil diagnóstico, pelo que nos últimos anos tem se incrementado o uso da artroscopia e a ressonância magnética como métodos diagnósticos na medicina veterinária. Nas ultimas décadas tem se descrevido um grande numero de tratamentos cirúrgicos com o fim de estabilizar novamente o joelho afetado. Esses tratamentos podem se-dividir em métodos intra-articulares, métodos extra-articulares e osteotomias da tíbia proximal. Ainda que houvesse um grande desenvolvimento cientifico realizado nos últimos anos com respeito a essa patologia, não existe um tratamento que evite o desenvolvimento de patologias secundarias a ruptura do LCCr, como artrose articular e frequentemente lesões nos meniscos. O objetivo do presente artigo é ministrar uma curta revisão atualizada da literatura relacionada à ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães.

 


Palabras clave


Perros, ruptura del ligamento cruzado craneal.

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Referencias


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