Sub-Acute Ruminal Acidosis and non-structural carbohydrates: a study model in nutritional immunology

Luis Miguel Gómez, Sandra Lucía Posada, Martha Olivera

Resumen


Nutritional immunology combines two areas of knowledge that did not interact until recently. One of the best examples studied to date is the bovine rumen. The symbiotic relationship between the host and rumen microorganisms can be altered causing a breakdown of immunological tolerance and imbalance of animal homeostasis. Dietary inclusion of supplements rich in non-structural carbohydrates is required for high yielding cows to meet their energy requirements. However, the use of those diets can lead to substantial changes in the rumen ecosystem, reducing the pH and promoting the development of subacute rumen acidosis. This generates lysis of gram-negative bacteria, release of lipopolysaccharides, breaking of immune tolerance, and activation of a cascade of inflammatory mediators with systemic effects that affect milk yield and quality. The gastrointestinal tract is the most important place where lipopolysaccharides are produced and its translocation mechanism from the rumen to peripheral circulation is still controversial. This review proposes a biological model integrating nutritional and immunological aspects of production, absorption, and mechanisms of action of lipopolysaccharides and its effects on milk production and compositional quality.

 

Acidosis Ruminal Sub-Aguda y carbohidratos no estructurales: un Modelo de Estudio en Inmunología Nutricional

La inmunología nutricional combina dos áreas del conocimiento que no interactuaban hasta hace algunos años. Uno de los mejores ejemplos estudiados hasta la fecha lo constituye el rumen bovino. La relación simbiótica entre hospedero y microorganismos ruminales puede alterarse provocando una ruptura de la tolerancia inmunológica y un desequilibrio en la homeostasis del animal. Para cubrir los requerimientos energéticos de las vacas de alta producción lechera es necesario incluir en la alimentación suplementos de elevado contenido en carbohidratos no estructurales.  Sin embargo, el uso de estas dietas puede provocar cambios sustanciales en el ecosistema ruminal, disminuyendo el pH y promoviendo el desarrollo de acidosis ruminal subaguda. Esto genera la lisis celular de las bacterias gram negativas, la liberación de lipopolisacáridos, la ruptura de la tolerancia inmunológica y la activación de una cascada de mediadores inflamatorios que tienen consecuencias sistémicas y afectan el rendimiento productivo del animal y la calidad composicional de la leche. El tracto gastrointestinal es el lugar más importante donde se producen los lipopolisacáridos, pero el mecanismo de translocación del rumen a la circulación periférica es aún controversial. En esta revisión de literatura se propone un modelo biológico que integra aspectos nutricionales e inmunológicos relacionados con la producción, absorción y mecanismos de acción de los lipopolisacáridos y los efectos sobre la producción y la calidad composicional de la leche.

 

Acidose ruminal subaguda e carboidratos não estruturais: um modelo de estudo em Imunologia Nutricional

A imunologia nutricional combina duas áreas de conhecimento que não interagiam até alguns anos atrás. Um dos melhores exemplos estudados até o presente consiste no rúmen bovino. A relação simbiótica entre hospedeiro e microrganismos do rúmen pode ser alterada causando uma quebra da tolerância imune e um desequilíbrio na homeostase do animal. Para satisfazer as necessidades energéticas de vacas de alta produção leiteira é necessário fornecer suplementos alimentares de elevado conteúdo em carboidratos não estruturais. No entanto, o uso dessas dietas pode provocar alterações importantes no ecossistema ruminal, reduzindo o pH e promovendo o desenvolvimento de acidose ruminal subaguda. Isto gera a lise de bactérias gram-negativas, a liberação de lipopolissacarídeos, a quebra da tolerância imune e a activação de uma cascata de mediadores inflamatórios que têm efeitos sistémicos e afetam o desempenho produtivo do animal e a composição do leite. O trato gastrointestinal é o lugar mais importante na produção dos lipopolissacarídeos, mas o mecanismo de translocação do rúmen para a circulação periférica é ainda controversa. Nesta revisão de literatura se propõe um modelo biológico que integra aspectos nutricionais e imunológicos relacionados com a produção, absorção e mecanismos de ação de os lipopolissacarídeos e os efeitos sobre a produção e composição do leite.


Palabras clave


Immunogens, lipopolysaccharides, nonstructural carbohydrates, nutritional immunology, SARA.

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Referencias


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