Diseño de vacunas recombinantes en las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle y Laringotraqueítis Infecciosa Aviar

Andrés Felipe Santander Torres, Diana Claudia Álvarez Espejo, Javier Andrés Olaya, Arlen Patricia Gómez Ramírez, Luis Carlos Villamil Jiménez

Resumen


La industria avícola ha experimentado un crecimiento significativo en los últimos años a nivel mundial. Igualmente, el sector avícola colombiano se ha consolidado como una industria dinámica y promisoria con altos rendimientos y una importante participación en el producto interno bruto (PIB). Sin embargo, este desarrollo se ha afectado por las amenazas o los retos a los que la avicultura se enfrenta. Dos de los grandes desafíos que esta industria debe enfrentar son la prevención y el control de las enfermedades infecciosas y la inocuidad de los productos avícolas. En los últimos años, los mayores esfuerzos se han centrado en el control de los agentes infecciosos causantes de pérdidas económicas por medio del uso de planes profilácticos con biológicos seguros, eficaces y prácticos. Estos inóculos usados para la inmunización se han modificado con la evolución de la ingeniería genética dando como resultado el diseño de vacunas de ADN recombinante. En este artículo se presenta una actualización sobre el diseño de las vacunas recombinantes y su uso para el control de las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle y laringotraqueítis infecciosa aviar, abordando temas asociados con los principios de la vacunación en avicultura, la descripción y la aplicación de este tipo de inmunógenos, así como las ventajas y las desventajas de dicho grupo de vacunas.

 

Design of recombinant vaccines for Gumboro, Newcastle and Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis

The poultry industry worldwide has experienced significant growth in recent years. Likewise, the Colombian poultry sector has become a dynamic and promising industry with high yields and a significant share of the gross domestic product (GDP). However, this development has not been exempt of threats and challenges. Two of the biggest challenges faced by the industry are the prevention and control of infectious diseases and the safety of poultry products. In recent years, major efforts have focused on the control of infectious agents that cause economic losses by implementing prophylactic plans with safe, effective and practical vaccines. These immunizing inocula have changed with genetic engineering developments resulting in the design of recombinant DNA vaccines. This article provides an update on the design of recombinant vaccines and their use for controlling Gumboro, Newcastle and avian infectious laryngotracheitis. It addresses issues such as poultry vaccination principles, description and application of immunogens, and the advantages and disadvantages of this group of vaccines.

 

Desenho de vacinas recombinantes nas doenças de Gumboro, Newcastle e Laringotraqueite infecciosa aviar

A indústria avícola tem experimentado um crescimento significativo nos últimos anos ao redor do mundo. Igualmente, o setor avícola colombiano tem se consolidado como uma indústria dinâmica e promissória com maiores rendimentos e uma importante participação no produto interno bruto (PIB). Embora, este desenvolvimento tem se visto afetado pelas ameaças ou os desafios que apresenta a avicultura. Dois dos grandes desafios que esta indústria tem que enfrentar são a prevenção e o controle das doenças infecciosas e a inocuidade dos produtos avícolas. Nos últimos anos, os maiores esforços têm se centrado no controle de agentes infecciosos causantes de perdas econômicas por médio do uso de planos profiláticos com biológicos seguros, eficazes e práticos. Esses inoculos usados para a imunização tem sido modificados com a evolução da engenharia genética gerando como resultado o desenho de vacinas de DNA recombinante. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma atualização sobre o desenho de vacinas recombinantes e sua utilização para o controle das doenças: Gumboro, Newcastle e Laringotraqueite infecciosa aviar, abordando temas associados com os princípios de vacinação em avicultura, a descrição e aplicação deste tipo de imunógenos, assim como as vantagens e desvantagens deste grupo de vacinas.


Palabras clave


Avicultura, enfermedad de Gumboro, enfermedad de Newcastle, Laringotraqueítis Infecciosa Aviar, vacunas recombinantes.

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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