Interrelações entre nutrição, hormonas metabólicas e reprodução em fêmeas ovinas

Maria Inês Lenz Souza, Marcelo Alexandrino Leandro Gressler, Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

Resumen


A regulação da atividade ovárica é um processo integrado que envolve sinais extra-ovarianos e intrafoliculares. Os efeitos positivos da nutrição na reprodução tem sido descritos em ovinos, particularmente relacionados com a taxa ovulatória. No entanto, as interações entre nutrição, hormônios metabólicos e reprodução não tem sido suficientemente descritas. Neste artigo, a resposta da dinâmica do eixo reprodutivo às variações nutricionais e estado metabólico são abordados com estudos recentes. A interação entre nutrição e reprodução tem suas maiores implicações no desenvolvimento reprodutivo em ovinos. Ao nível ovariano, o efeito da nutrição é estimular a foliculogênese. A nutrição também pode afetar os componentes da expressão do mRNA do sistema IGF ovariano para regular a resposta/sensibilidade dos folículos às gonadotrofinas. Estas alterações estão associadas com as concentrações intrafoliculares no sistema metabólico de glicose-insulina, IGF e leptina. A ativação destes sistemas intrafoliculares permite suprimir a produção de estradiol folicular. Os hormônios metabólicos também regulam a esteroidogênese, a infusão de glicose e insulina a diminuem, enquanto a infusão de IGF-1 é estimulatória. A leptina antagoniza o efeito estimulante da insulina na esteroidogênese das células da teca, permitindo a diminuição da secreção de estradiol. Em conclusão, estes dados sugerem que as ações locais ovarianas dos nutrientes tem um papel na mediação dos efeitos nutricionais na foliculogênese.

 

Interrelaciones entre nutrición, hormonas metabólicas y reproducción en hembras ovinas

La regulación de la actividad ovárica es un processo integrado que involucra señales extraováricas y factores intrafoliculares. Los efectos positivos de la nutrición en la reproducción han sido descritos en ovinos, particularmente lo relacionado con la tasa ovulatoria. Sin embargo, las interaciones entre nutrición, hormonas metabólicas y reproducción no han sido lo suficientemente descritas. En este documento, la dinámica de la respuesta del eje reproductivo a los cambios nutricionales y estado metabólico son abordados a la luz de estudios recientes. La interacción entre nutrición y reproducción tiene sus mayores implicaciones en el desarrollo reproductivo en ovinos. A nivel ovárico, el efecto de la nutrición es estimular la foliculogénesis. La nutrición también puede afectar los componentes de la expresión del mRNA del sistema IGF ovárico para regular la respuesta/sensibilidad de los folículos a las gonadotropinas. Estos cambios están asociados con las alteraciones intrafoliculares en el sistema metabólico de la  glucosa-insulina, IGF y leptina. La activación de estos sistemas intrafoliculares permite suprimir la producción del estradiol folicular. Las hormonas metabólicas también regulan la esteroidogénesis: la infusión de glucosa e insulina la disminuyen, en cuanto que la infusión del IGF-I es estimulante. La leptina antagoniza el efecto estimulante de la insulina en la esteroidogénesis de las células de la teca, permitiendo la disminución de la secreción del estradiol. En conclusión, estos datos sugieren que las acciones locales ováricas de los nutrientes juegan un papel en la mediación de los efectos nutricionales en la foliculogénesis.

 

Interrelationships of nutrition, metabolic hormones and reproduction of female sheep

Regulation of ovarian activity is an integrated process involving extra-ovarian signals and intrafollicular factors. Positive effects of nutrition on reproduction have been described in sheep, particularly as related to ovulation rate. However, interactions between nutrition, metabolic hormones and reproduction have not been sufficiently described. This paper addresses the response of the reproductive axis to nutritional changes and metabolic status in the light of recent studies. The interaction between nutrition and reproduction has important implications for the reproductive development of sheep. Nutrition stimulates folliculogenesis and can also affect mRNA expression of the ovarian IGF system to regulate follicle sensitivity and response to gonadotropins. These changes are associated with intrafollicular alterations of glucose-insulin, IGF, and leptin metabolic system. Intrafollicular activation of these systems allows to suppress follicle estradiol production. Metabolic hormones also regulate steroidogenesis: glucose and insulin infusions decrease it, while IGF-I infusion increases it. Leptin antagonizes the stimulating effect of insulin on steroidogenesis of theca cells, allowing decreased estradiol secretion. In conclusion, these data suggest that local ovarian nutrients play a role in folliculogenesis.


Palabras clave


Hormônios, insulina, leptina, nutrição, ovário, progesterona.

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Referencias


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