Efectos toxicológicos generados por la exposición a triclorfón en un modelo inducido experimentalmente en cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus)

Gira Alejandra Marín Méndez, Roberto Andrés Chacón Novoa, Ángel Enrique Céspedes Rubio, Iang Schroniltgen Rondón Barragán

Resumen


El Triclorfón (TCF) es un insecticida organofosforado ampliamente utilizado en sistemas de producción agrícola y pecuario; sin embargo, su uso indiscriminado ha generado serios problemas en ecosistemas acuáticos afectando organismos que no son blanco directo del compuesto químico. Por este motivo, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivos evaluar la toxicidad aguda (CL50) y crónica subletal del TCF en alevinos de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). La toxicidad aguda se evaluó a 96 horas, empleando cuatro concentraciones de TCF (0,01, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5 mg/L) y un grupo control, cada grupo consto de 8 animales (2,5 ± 0,5 g). El valor de CL50 calculado mediante el software Trimmed Spearman-Karber fue 0,18 mg/L (p<0,05). La evaluación del efecto de la exposición crónica subletal a TCF sobre la respuesta inmune de P. brachypomus se realizó mediante el ensayo de explosión respiratoria, evidenciándose aumento significativo en animales sometidos a 0,029 mg/L durante los primeros 10 días de exposición en comparación con el control. Asimismo, se evalúo la capacidad bactericida del plasma de los peces expuestos a TCF frente Aeromonas hydrophila, presentándose mayor conteo de unidades formadoras de colonia para el día 20 y 30 de exposición a la concentración de 0,018 mg/L a diferencia del control. Aunado a esto, se realizó estudio histopatológico, hallándose lesiones branquiales compatibles con hipertrofia de células epiteliales y desprendimiento lamelar en los peces expuestos a 0,05 mg/L para el día 30 de exposición. Este trabajo demuestra que la cachama blanca se constituye en un bioindicador de contaminación asociado a estos xenobióticos.

 

Toxicity of trichlorfon exposure using an experimentally induced model with Silver Pacu (Piaractus brachypomus)

The trichlorfon (TCF) is an organophosphate insecticide widely used in agricultural systems and livestock production. However, its indiscriminate use has generated serious problems affecting organisms in aquatic ecosystems that are not direct targets of the chemical. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess acute toxicity (LC50) and chronic subletal of TCF in cachama blanca fingerlings (Piaractus brachypomus). Acute toxicity was evaluated at 96 hours, using four concentrations of TCF (0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg/L) and a control group, each group consisted of 8 animals (2.5 ± 0.5 g). The LC50 value calculated using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber software was 0.18 mg/L (p<0,05). The evaluation of the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal TCF on the immune response of P. brachypomus was performed by testing respiratory burst, showing significant increase in animals exposed to 0.029 mg / L during the first 10 days of exposure compared to control. Likewise, the plasma bactericidal capacity was evaluated in TCF exposed fish using Aeromonas hydrophila, finding greater of colony forming units on day 20 and 30 of exposure to the concentration 0.018 mg/L as opposed to the control. In addition, a histopathological study was performed, finding gill lesions compatible with epithelial cell hypertrophy and lamellar detachment in fish exposed to 0,05 mg/L on day 30 of exposure. This work showed the cachama blanca as a biomarker in contaminations associated with these xenobiotics.

 

Efeitos toxicológicos no peixe Pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) gerado pela exposição a triclorfon em um modelo induzido experimentalmente

O triclorfom (TCF) é um inseticida organofosforado amplamente utilizado em sistemas de produção agrícola e pecuária; no entanto, seu uso indiscriminado tem levado a sérios problemas que afetam os organismos nos ecossistemas aquáticos que não são alvos diretos da substância química. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade aguda (CL50) e crônica subletal de TCF em alevinos de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada em 96 horas, usando quatro concentrações de TCF, com um grupo control, cada grupo com 8 animais (2,5 ± 0,5 g). O valor de CL50 calculado com o software de Spearman-Karber foi de 0,18 mg/L (p<0,05). A avaliação do efeito da exposição crônica a concentrações subletais de TCF na resposta imune de P. brachypomus foi realizada pelo teste de explosão respiratória, mostrando um aumento significativo nesta, em animais expostos a 0,029 mg/L, durante os primeiros 10 dias de exposição. Também, a capacidade bactericida do plasma dos peixes expostos a TCF foi avaliada frente a Aeromonas hydrophila, os quais apresentaraõ maior unidades formadoras de colônias no dia 20 e 30 de exposição a concentração de 0,018 mg/L, ao contrario do controle. Alem disso, um estudo histopatológico foi realizado, emcontrando lesões de brânquia compatíveis com hipertrofia e desprendimento de células epiteliais nas lamelas de peixes expostos a 0,05 mg/L no dia 30 de exposição. este trabalho mostra ao cachama blanca como um biomarcador de contaminação asociado com estes xenobióticos.


Palabras clave


Organofosforado, peces, pesticida, toxicidad, triclorfón.

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Referencias


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