Detección serológica y molecular del virus de la Hepatitis E en cerdos de granjas antioqueñas

Cristian Camilo Gutiérrez Vergara, Daniel Alberto Ospina Vélez, Jorge Eduardo Forero Duarte, Berardo De Jesús Rodríguez, Lina Andrea Gutiérrez Builes, Guillermo Correa Londoño, Albeiro López Herrera, Jaime Parra Suescún

Resumen


La Hepatitis E es una enfermedad producida por el Virus de Hepatitis E (HEV), considerado el agente vírico con mayor producción de hepatitis agudas alrededor del mundo. Se han determinado 4 genotipos y 24 subtipos de HEV. La presencia de cepas virales tanto en humanos como en otras especies, ha sugerido que existen reservorios animales para HEV, entre los cuales el cerdo juega un papel importante. En Antioquia se ha reportado un caso de Hepatitis E en humanos. Teniendo en cuenta que este departamento es el principal productor y consumidor de cerdos en Colombia, se investigó la presencia de este virus en los cerdos de diferentes granjas porcícolas, con el fin de determinar anticuerpos anti-HEV y RNA viral en heces porcinas. Para lograr esto, se realizaron pruebas serológicas para la detección de anticuerpos IgG e IgM anti-HEV, y pruebas moleculares (RT-PCR) para la detección del marcador ORF-1 del genoma viral de HEV. Estos procedimientos se realizaron en 210 animales de 30 granjas porcícolas de Antioquia.  La presencia de anticuerpos y análisis moleculares en los cerdos, se determinaron por frecuencias y se analizaron mediante el software R versión 2.15.2. El 100% de las muestras fueron positivas para anticuerpos IgG; mientras que para anticuerpos IgM, los positivos representaron el 57% de las muestras evaluadas. El análisis molecular determinó que el 26% de los cerdos presentó material genético de HEV en sus heces. Esta información demuestra la exposición y la circulación de HEV en cerdos de las granjas evaluadas en municipios de Antioquia.

 

Serological and molecular detection of Hepatitis E virus in pig farms of Antioquia

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the viral agent that produces most cases of acute hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes and 24 subtypes of HEV have been identified. Presence of viral strains in pigs suggests this species is a reservoir for HEV. A case of Hepatitis E in humans has been reported in Antioquia, the largest pig producer and pork consumer province in Colombia. This study investigated the presence of HEV in pigs from several swine farms in Antioquia by looking for anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA in pig feces. Serological tests were performed for detecting IgG and IgM anti-HEV. Molecular assays (RT-PCR) were also used for detecting the ORF-1 marker of HEV viral genome. These procedures were performed on 210 animals from 30 pig farms. Presence of antibodies and molecular analysis were organized by frequencies and analyzed using the R software (version 2.15.2). 100% of the samples were positive for IgG antibodies, while 57% of the samples were positive for IgM antibodies. According to the molecular analysis, 26% of pig feces had genetic material from HEV. This study demonstrates exposure and circulation of HEV in pig farms of Antioquia.

 

Detecção serológica e molecular do vírus da hepatite E em suínos no departamento de Antioquia, Colômbia

A hepatite E é uma doença produzida pelo vírus da hepatite E (HEV), considerado o agente virulento com maior produção de hepatites agudas ao redor do mundo. Tem se determinado quatro genótipos e 24 subtipos de HEV. A presença de cepas virais tanto em humanos quanto em outras espécies, tem sugerido que existem reservatórios animais para HEV, entre os quais o suíno tem grande importância. Em Antioquia tem se reportado um caso de hepatite E em humanos. Tendo de presente que este departamento é o principal produtor e consumidor de suínos na Colômbia, pesquisou-se a presença deste vírus em suínos de diferentes granjas suínas, com o fim de determinar anticorpos anti-HEV e RNA viral em fezes porcinas. Para lograr isto, realizaram-se testes serológicos para a detecção de anticorpos IgG e IgM anti-HEV e testes moleculares (RT-PCR) para a detecção do marcador ORF-1 do genoma viral de HEV. Estes procedimentos realizaram-se em 210 animais de 30 granjas suínas em Antioquia. A presença de anticorpos e as análises moleculares nos suínos, determinaram-se por frequências e se analisaram mediante o software R Versão 2.15.2. O 100% das amostras foram positivas para anticorpos IgG; enquanto que para anticorpos IgM os positivos representaram o 57% das amostras avaliadas. O analise molecular determinou que o 26% dos suínos apresentou material genético de HEV em suas fezes. Esta informação demonstra a exposição e circulação de HEV em suínos das granjas avaliadas em municípios de Antioquia, Colômbia.

Palabras clave


Anticuerpos, Heces, Porcinos, virus de Hepatitis E, Zoonosis.

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Referencias


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